The first inspiration for writing this paper comes from my reading Philip Riley’s paper titled ‘Towards a Contrastive Pragmalinguistics’ in J. Fisiak [ed.,1981]. In the same paper the author gives a two-line dialogue between the child and the father and then brings to light the presuppositions underlying the conversation, thereby sensitizing the reader to the methods and practices used by the participants in this ethno-discourse. Indeed, the author documents the methods and practices enacted by the members of a Western household, foregrounding a member’s knowledge of his ordinary life affairs and of his organized enterprise.
Peshkova Natalya P.
The paper considers the principles of “the sense theory” developed by A. Novikov and his scientific school within the paradigm defined as “text psycholinguistics”. Modern “text psycholinguistics” is an experimental approach based on the integrative method of studying comprehension of various text-types. One of its main tasks is building the interactive comprehension model developed by the author in collaboration with the team of young researchers. Some of the results obtained are discussed in the article.
Rogoznaya Nina N.
Mardieva Lyaylya A.
In this article mass media texts are presented as a solid united organism - a sign with a complicated organization. Leaning on the essential properties of mass media, its social orientation and at the same time its individual validity the author describes psychosocial arrangement of the text-sign included into the process of its production and perception during mass media communication. In the research the emphasis are placed on the main poles of mass media: social stereotype and personal sense, and the greater attention is paid to the inner sensible part of text-sign.
Zalevskaya Aleksandra A.
Different meanings of the terms “methodology”, “concept” and “lexicon” are discussed. It is stressed that widening the meaning of scientific terms may result in homonymy that leads to misunderstanding.
Shaposhnikova Irina V.
This article discusses problematic aspects of systematization of relatively new knowledge about human language and language faculty, obtained mostly in some interdisciplinary domains due to the IT revolution of the second half of the XXth century. The author presents a new Russian regional database of free associations (2008 - 2013) which has been made in collaboration of psycholinguists with University educators in Asian regions of Russia. The project aimed at widening the basis of evidence for interdisciplinary (psycho- and ethnolinguistic) research on the Russian associative-verbal data. It enables us to judge about stability and changeability of the Russian associative dominants with reference to reflecting the value systems of young Russians. Moreover, the associative-verbal net provides linguists with materials for effective description of the modern Russian active grammar. The article focuses on the potential of associative lexicography in identifying units of analysis for scientific research and corresponding linguo-didactic units for educationalists who practice language teaching. The idea of “parsing” associative databases and their connection with text corpora is proposed for discussion. The possibility of making up associative profiles of the already discovered (within the limits of traditional linguistic techniques) lexicographic types of lexemes is viewed as a first step of the “parsing” procedure.
Vasilyeva Natalya V.
In the paper the experimental studies of proper names are reviewed, which could be defined as psychoonomastical ones. Special attention is payed to the experimental study of perceiving proper names in texts via methods of text psycholinguisics developed by Anatoliy I. Novikov.
Kurushin Daniel S., Nesterova Natalya M., Ovchinnikova Irina G.
The paper presents one of the possible approaches to the creation of automated abstracting system. The approach is based on the technique of formalized text content representation developed by the school of Nikolay I. Zhinkin and Anatoliy I. Novikov. The proposed approach involves the creation of a semantically adequate model of a particular object area, which will be used to create an abstract.
Vinogradov Sergey N.
Verbalization, different naming and hypothetical status as immanent properties of ideal objects are considered. Analogy between material and ideal objects from the point of view of objective existence is drawn. It is offered to accept a postulate that word usage encodes the fuzzy set of hypothetical judgments about a concept. The results of A.I. Novikov's experimental study of sense on the basis of secondary text activity are discussed. The indistinct difference of the sense and the contents, plurality of judgment of the same text, absence of universal observed «sense language» are estimated as a result of hypothetical status of text sense.
Myskin Sergey V.
The article presents characteristics of organizational activity games as a way of forming professional language consciousness in a diversified labor collective. The author focuses on the analysis of methodological approaches that ensure collective oral and written speech production in the game.
Nesterova Natalya M., Naugolnikh Evgeniya A.
The article is devoted to the experimental study of perception and understanding of occasional words conducted on the new lexical units of James Joyce from his novel «Ulysses». Theoretical basis of this study is the text comprehension model proposed by A.I. Novikov.
Salinas Armando, Paredes Marissa
Translators and Interpreters originated as occupations based on the human need to communicate their ideas and needs to others who spoke a different language. Despite the fact they are practices from old and all times, their degree of professionalization and scientific study is quite recent. Nowadays, there is an increase on the need of quality translation and interpretation professionals. In order for them to be competitive in the growing market, they need to be truly competent in their working languages. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight on the different competencies and sub-competencies required by translators as well interpreters which will allow them to address their on-the-job problems and enable them to establish different strategies in order to render a higher degree of quality and precision in a translation or throughout an interpretation that responds to the challenges the new century demands.
Mironova Nataliya I.
In this article a new interdisciplinary field of linguistic study - soсiopsуholinguistics - is discussed. It emerged at the intersection of sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics. The object of study of this science is language and speech, and the subject - linguistic competence of the individual functioning depending on its psychological and social features and social context. Thus, soсiopsуholinguistics offers a specific study perspective of traditional linguistic object.
Gerte Natalya A.
The article describes the essence of abstract translation and its features making it one of the most difficult types of verbal and cognitive activity. Particular attention is paid to text apprehension and the mechanism of denotative text analysis with a view to creating a summary of the text. The article also deals with the mechanism of denotative graph construction aiming to create specialized abstracts.
Akimova Nataliya V.
The article is devoted to the problem of text understanding. Some speech units provoke variants of interpretation and communicative deviations, therefore the author suggests to name such units - as deviation ones. Deviation speech units are divided into three groups: not enough informing, surplus and uncombined. Some features of understanding of deviation speech units are determined as a result of an experimental research.
«За четверть века меняется менталитет, меняется шкала ценностей, меняются клетки в человеческом организме, меняется воздух, меняется оптика, меняется все! Пройдут годы, время снесет все, в том числе и твою ветхую хибару, и если есть возможность, забей хотя бы гвоздик, пока рука держит молоток и глаз видит шляпку гвоздя». Этими строками мудрого Иона Друцэ автор рецензируемой монографии - Татьяна Петровна Млечко предваряет заключительное предложение в своем «Слове к читателям» (Предисловие).
dos Santos Veronica Lopes, Tfouni Leda Verdiani
What is the socio-historically constructed space for autistic and psychotic children in society? The aim of this study is to analyze the forms of exclusion and segregation that these subjects are exposed to through proposals of institutional treatment for children with such diagnoses. Proposals aimed at the subject instead of diagnosis rarely emerge and in this sense, these subjects are excluded from social participation. Pedagogical and treatment practices for these cases are focused on teaching children to communicate with others effectively, so that the others understand unequivocally what they mean so they can share the social link. On the other hand, they believe that these children should be controlled or that they are not able to understand any educational and / or ludic proposal. This premise is based on a misconception of centuries that madness is the opposite of reason, and with the rise of Cartesianism, the madman is submitted to exclusion. These questions arose from the following corpus «treat me as a person, educate me with life», slogan of Ann Sullivan do Brazil, treatment and education center. The imperative form of verbs to educate and to treat expresses the attenuation of the action as well as the intention to persuade the interlocutor to perform the action indicated by the verb. Another point that deserves attention is that the statement seems to be produced by the subject that will be treated or educated; however, it is not the subject who is talking, but the institution. The ideology is not in terms of ideas, but rather within praxis, in which subordination / inequality relationships that characterize the class struggle are established, it could be concluded that the effect of the assumption exposed above composes an ideological formation that crosses discourses about the autistic and psychotic child and that determine practices.
The article analyzes the results of psycholinguistic survey of native Russian and Chinese languages, which aims at clarifying the significant components for each crop classification models move. It highlighted the presence of two different strategies of perception of movement in space and its subsequent fixation of linguistic signs -«abstract» strategy for Chinese language consciousness and «engagement» strategy for Russian language consciousness.
26 сентября 1929 года родилась Александра Александровна Залевская. Дорогая Александра Александровна! Поздравляем Вас с этим радостным для нас событием и желаем Вам долгого и доброго здоровья и неиссякаемого творчества! Редколлегия