Efimova Olga Yu., Nistratov Aleksandr A., Sinyachkin Vladimir P., Tarasov Evgeniy F.
The paper presents an analysis of heterostereotypes in bearers of Serbian, lithuanian and Russian linguocultures. the results have been obtained with the use of the semantic differential. Semantic spaces of national stereotypes for Serbians, lithuanians and Russians have been constructed. the method of subjective semantic spaces has permitted to investigate stereotypes at the image level. the analysis of heterostereotypes has permitted to formulate hypotheses about the behavior of Serbians, lithuanians and Russians. the hypotheses have heuristic potency.
Borgoyakova Tamara G., Pokoyakova Karina A.
Analysis of the contrast conceptualization in the core of Khakass, Russian and english language consciousness reveals basic quantitative and substantive parameters of its representation, as well as social, cultural and historical influence of verbal behavior constants. full or partial match of associative strategies are found in the parameterization of the positive-negative, alive-dead, gender and movement direction. archetypes of the Khakas traditional culture are revealed in the peculiarities of the polar categorization of social space in the core of the Khakas language consciousness. constants of age and gender differentiation that affect person’s social status are actualized. the actualization of the ethical characteristics of good/evil contrast may serve as confirmation and indicator of the Russian language consciousness features, pointing out the constants of “unconscious spirituality” and the systematic way of the world view in Russian culture, formed by orthodoxy. a distinctive feature of polarization in the core of the english language consciousness is presented in a wider range of contrasting strategies. this includes denial/ agreement opposition in a more general view, compared to the opposition of presence/ absence. opposing spatial displacements includes two separately presented contrast movements: vertical and outside/inside. two basic color antonyms is another parameter of the contrastive conceptualization of the image of the world, characteristic only of the english language consciousness. universal and specific features of the psycholinguistic and lexicographic representation of antonymous relationships are revealed on the example of the life /death antonymous pair. the constants in the associative fields of the members of the opposition in there languages are based on the data of associative thesauruses and associative experiments.
Bubnova Irina A.
The article considers the main stages of formation of language consciousness research within the framework of Moscow psycholinguistic school. Special attention is paid to the continuity of scientific traditions and logic of development of this research sphere. the factors, which call forth urgency of such investigations nowadays, are also discussed. Inherent potentialities of the physiological structure of the word meaning that give the opportunity to get information about self-sentiment of society in a definite historical moment and its attitude towards the main trends of the country’s development are demonstrated by the analysis of content dynamics of the word people. It is shown that experimental data are very useful not only for the analysis of past and present state of “psychological field” of a person as a representative of a social group, but also could be used for social prognosis of its future progress.
Melnichuk Olga A.
The purpose of this article is to identify the methods of objectivation of cognitive images of the author’s concept of body in Daniel Pennac’s ‘Journal d’un corps’ and to build its nominative field. the methods used in the research are cognitive interpretation and interpretative analysis. among the components identified in the structure of the author’s concept of body are four cognitive imaginative microcomponents belonging to the basic imaginative features of the concept in the french culture; six author’s cognitive imaginative components; and an author’s microconcept evolution of one’s own body. the core of the nominative field is presented by means of objectivation of cognitive features of images related to one’s own body experience. the close periphery includes means of objectivation of features of imaginative microcomponents representing the functional-active aspect of body. the far periphery includes cognitive images related to the social aspect of body (contemporary and collective body). the utmost periphey consists of metaphorical nominations.
Vasilyeva Natalia V.
The paper deals with proper names of characters and their doppelgangers mainly in Russian fiction. the main goal is to find out some general strategies peculiar to doppelgangers’ proprial field. But before the notion and the term doppelganger (german Doppelg?nger) are considered with regard to the literary criticism position. as result of the study five correlative onymic strategies are formulated due to doppelganger’s type (character’s double or splitting of the hero’s consciousness): 1) tautonymy, 2) tautonymy + modification, 3) heteronymy, 4) heteronymy + allusion, 5) namelessness. Psychoonomastic aproach also is partly used in order to demonstrate readers’ reaction to some well-known doppelgangers’ proper names. as conclusion the author draws attention to the fact that the obviously demonstrable onymic strategies (tautonymy + modification) are peculiar to character’s doubles, whereas other types of doppelgangers require decoding of their names with a large amount of philological tools.
Dmitryuk Natalia V., Artykbaieva Fazila I., Cherkasova Galina A.
The article discusses associative research in Kazakhstan made on the basis of two associative dictionaries of the Kazakh language that were published in different epochs - at the Soviet period and present. Such studies are a reliable means of access to ethnic language consciousness, they identify intra-ethnic and cross-cultural peculiarities of the ethnic group mentality together with the basic values in the central and peripheral zones of its mental lexicon. for example when comparing the conceptual core center of the Russian, Kazakh, english and Spanish linguistic consciousness on the one hand, and identifying forms of linguistic consciousness and mentality transformation in two generations of the titular nation in Kazakhstan, on the other hand, the authors come to the conclusion on the heuristic significance and representativeness of associative nuclear bodies in the study of basic values of society and their changes in different historical epochs.
Bakhtikireeva Uldanai M., Sinyachkin Vladimir P.
This article is written in the genre of response to the work of scientists, marking the importance and relevance of the study of individual features of individual linguistic identity. Based on a representative analysis of each of the presented approaches to the study of language personality (neo-psycholinguistics, the language biography of the individual, the language portrait) the authors present their position - the ontology of language being and the ontology of translingual being. from the point of view of the authors, such an approach provides opportunities to explore insufficiently-known issues associated with translingualism and transculturality, as well as with the so-called «Russian undifferentiated mass». the authors are trying to prove contextual nature of all presented approaches and propose to consider them as texts in context, is able to increase the efficiency of studies of individual features of a personality.
Abayeva Madina K.
Research of language consciousness, collecting of associative norms and creation on their basis of associative dictionaries and thesauruses became one of the priority directions in psycholinguistic researches recently. associative dictionaries belong to dictionaries of descriptive (descriptive) type. they aren't ordering or standard. the main instrument of creation of any associative dictionary is the technique of free associative experiment which is widely used in psychology and psycholinguistics. By means of this technique it is possible to judge the features of functioning of language consciousness of the person and ways of creation of the speech statement which are usually not realized by native speakers and not revealed by other ways of research. In our research on a private social cut the technique of studying of language consciousness will be shown. Data for drawing up dictionary associative entries are collected by means of carrying out standard free associative experiment. Modern Kazakhstan students (100 people) were respondents of data. Survey was conducted since September, 2015. It was offered to examinee to give associations on the following the word incentive: Russia (100). ways of representation in language consciousness of an image of Russia are considered.
Gerd Alexandr S.
In article analyses the types of the correlations between the jargon and social group on the example of Queer-groups.
Shakhovsky Viktor I.
The notion of a createm is introduced in the article. createms are speech units which are widely used in the modern mass media, the politic discourse and the Internet. at the same time they reflect the emotional attitude of speakers to the phenomena of everyday life. the author demonstrates that new contradictory senses which are created by communicative process and linguistic game are expressed more brightly thanks to means of blending. the context and the situations of realization of createms are mostly non-ecological and these units are bearers of concentrated negative senses. at the same time they designate the phenomena of « topics of the day» in the most absolute and honest manner. So they are becoming an important instrument of (de)ecologization of society's social life. their semiotic importance and interdependency with the modus of environmental friendliness within the communicological paradigm is demonstrated. article postulates the idea that createms' semantics reflect modern socio-cultural Russian reality. Proved is a.N. leontiev's thesis that meaning is consciousness's constituent. Demonstrated the symbolic role of createms in fixing of the changing communicative situation in the country and other russian language personality's environment.
Kechina Elina A.
This article provides a summary of results, concerning the research of national and cultural specifity of the system of valuable orientations in the arab culture. free associative experiment was a main method in the real investigation. Systematization of the received case of reactions as well as compilation of the arab associative dictionary played the role of effective factors, influencing the formulation of basic conclusions about key concepts of the arab language consciousness and the system of values in it. fragments of associative fields of the words as "god", "arab", "arab language", "time", "way" and others are offered to consideration in this article. a special attention is paid to the religious conditionality of language consciousness as to the one of phenomena of the arab culture and to the most important sign of national identity.
Ufimtseva Natalia V.
This article analyzes the changes in the content of language consciousness of the young generation of carriers of the Russian language / culture in the period from 1998 to 2011 based on associative dictionaries of the Russian language by the example of the word-stimulus lIfe.
Goldin Valentin E., Sdobnova Alevtina P.
The authors of the article claim that associative areas of those stimuli that belong to the same semantic class exhibit unitary combinations of referential areas of these classes. Persistent complexes of referential areas are interpreted by the authors as responding models which are connected to the configuration of the picture of the world.
Krasnykh Victoria V.
The given article discusses ethnopsycholinguistics as a scientific discipline. It proposes some methodological foundations of ethnopsycholinguistics, drawing on the works by N.V. ufimtseva, and also introduces in brief a new branch - psycholinguoculturology (meaning psycho-linguo-cultural studies). the latter is presented in comparison with linguoculturology and ethnopsycholinguistics and is defined as a discipline that researches interrelation, interdependence and interaction between language, culture and human conscious through the prism of Homo loquens. the article argues the need for the integration of modern science due to a new object of scientific research.
Batov Vitaliy I.
In this paper an attempt is made to create a psychological portrait of one of the leaders of domestic psycholinguistics.
Babenko Nataliya S.
The paper considers how cases work in German from both the linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives. Watching the contemporary German language evolve, we might claim that the common case can sometimes be a zero-marked category.
Shaposhnikova Irina V.
The article gives an overview of general philosophical and orthodox cultural assessments of the modes of Russian collective consciousness during the post-Soviet period with special reference to the psychosocial effects of the perestroika reforms in education. the author describes the social demand for an interdisciplinary study of the interaction of creative and destructive processes in educational and cultural areas of social activities, for overcoming the devastating effects of social degradation. Identity processes and socially motivated interaction of personality and collective sense formation processes can be considered as the topical issues of such an interdisciplinary study. the explanatory and methodological potentials of axiological ethnopsycholinguistics as a relatively new interdisciplinary branch based on the fundamental theoretical postulates of the Moscow psycholinguistic research tradition are discussed. the author also gives a short overview of the major scientific achievements by some of the leading researchers who have been working in the mainstream of Russian ethnopsycholinguistics with vast experimental data and new computer technologies since the Soviet times to discover the core of the Russian language consciousness. using the Russian National corpus word frequency dictionary and psycholinguistic techniques of observation the author attempts to measure the dynamics of the semantic fields representing Russian civil identity before, during, and after perestroika. the empirical material for the analysis has been provided by several Russian associative-verbal databases.
Alpatov Vladimir M.
Word is the central unit of linguistics founded on the european tradition. However the definition of word and its singling out are very difficult. the comparison of the european tradition with the other ones shows that every tradition has some basic unit but its peculiarities and criteria for its singling out can be different. every tradition including the european one is based on the intuition of speakers, i.e. on some influence of their psycholinguistic mechanism, but this influence is not realized. It is expedient to go beyond the limits of the “pure” linguistics for the decision of the problem “what is word?” and investigate the question of the psycholinguistic foundations of word. the study of aphasia and children's speech gives indirect but very significant data for the understanding of this question. these data show that there are three mechanisms in the human brain: the lexical mechanism of the keeping of basic units (words), the syntactic mechanism of its combination and the morphological mechanism of transformation (inflection) of the basic units. this difference reflects the fundamental opposition of grammar and lexicon. the units of lexicon are kept in the memory as ready parts of discourse but the other units are built in the process of speech. the concept of word is a model of the unit of lexicon; its peculiarities can be different depending on the system of the language of tradition.
Zakharov Victor P.
The paper introduces corpus linguistics as a new direction in linguistic science. the description of a subject and the main maintenance of corpus linguistics are given. a small historical digression is presented. the paper describes the concept ‘corpus' and characterizes the basic concepts of corpus linguistics: representativeness, balance, tagging, annotation, corpus manager, etc. the bases for typology and the main types of corpora are presented. the question of a subject of corpus linguistics, its place among other sections and directions in linguistics has risen and became more and more sharp as corpus technologies have been developing. Now corpus linguistics is broadening contact fields with theoretical linguistics and with different directions in it, therefore it is important to realize its place in the world of linguistics. this subject is discussed in the work, too. Prospects of the development, both within this direction, and together with other linguistic disciplines are given.
Rogoznaya Nina N., Khlamov Evgeny V., Zamanstanchuk Daria E.
The article deals with the psycholinguistic and linguistic description of phonological simulator development. the research describes linguistic models for developing educational software. the subject of research is a linguistic model as a prototype of the computer phonological simulator. the purpose of research is to describe a phonological cluster for developing a computer bilingual training model as a phonological simulator. 224 вопросы психолингвистики the study uses phonological, psycholinguistic, comparative, and analytical methods. the article describes the methods for developing a phonological bilingual simulator based on the cluster description of a phoneme as a functional unit of sound. the term “linguistic cluster” introduced on the basis of a detailed phonemic structure can be used to describe any linguistic level, including phonological one. the bilingual teaching model imposes special requirements to computer-aided training tools due to the possibility to emphasize the interferents which are part and parcel of the intermediate competency. the results of cluster description can be taken as a basis for developing linguistic computer simulators for all linguistic levels.
Stepanova Anna A.
Associative experiments and dictionaries compiled on their materials provide an opportunity to dissect the peculiarities of the world image of representatives of different cultures. the knowledge contributes to the harmonization of intercultural communication that is especially important in the current globalized world. the study of regional specificity of language consciousness is a step in this direction. the article presents a comparative study of associative fields «native» and «homeland» on materials of the Russian associative dictionary (2008-2011) and trial associative experiments in the Republics of Komi and tatarstan. the author has not received any significant diversity of specific responses. the result can be explained by the widespread usage of the Russian language in the regions and the actualization of the image «homeland» as a country but not as a native region.
Mironova Nataliya I.
This article focuses on the question of what kinds of semantic information are reflected in the associative field. the results of multiple-reaction associative experiment are presented. one word-stimulus was given to the subjects and they were allowed to react for 5 minutes. the word aggression has been selected as a word-stimulus, because its definition has changed in dictionaries at the end of XX - beginning of XXI century. In earlier definitions aggression was treated as an «attack, seizure of foreign territory» and was attributed only to the state. But at the end of XX - beginning of XXI century appeared second meaning «open dislike, causing hostility» and men and animals came to be called as a subject of aggression. our experiment subjects were 100 students of the lomonosov Moscow State university. the focus of our study was the connection of the associative field with the definition and connotations of the word-stimulus. Semantic analysis of the associative field in multiple-reaction associative experiment showed the connection of reactions with modern definition of the word aggression in Russian dictionaries associating aggression not only with countries and states, but also with men and animals. Responses-connotations of the word aggression were also found in the associative field.
Seagal Kirill Ya.
In the article it is shown how does the semantic perception of free word-combination (namely with an occasional metaphor) without context work. the experiment revealed that the path to the meaning of such a word-combination is mediated by series of operations and strategies. the predominant operation is a semantic substitution; the most frequent strategy is a metaphoric perception on the base of syntactic form of word-combination. the results of the experiment show that the understanding of occasional word-combination without context is a difficult speech task. that is why in case of including such a word-combination in his or her discourse the speaker must use special metalinguistic markers. Besides in the experiment it is revealed that those participants who comprehended the stimulus as a metaphor imagine the one who used it quite differently. Nevertheless the participants of the experiment were able to construct an authentic intersubjective notion about creator of the occasional word-combination. the author comes to the conclusion that in the process of semantic perception the addressee operates free word-combination as a relatively autonomous complicate structure and that without context the operating by free word-combination has variable character.
Peshkova Natalia P.
The article considers the possibility of identifying and studying person's conflict potential based on the “counter texts” of recipients obtained with the help of the “internal text” method in a series of experiments connected with studying perception and comprehension of different text-types including popular science literature and works of art, the Bible and fashion journals. the author discusses some results of quantitative and qualitative analysis of recipients' responses constituting their “internal texts” in general and, particularly, “counter texts” as a part of the latter, generated in the process of the experiment. the results of the quantitative analysis demonstrates that all the reactions constituting the “counter text” including both moderate disagreement and verbal aggression make up a considerable part of the “internal text” as an internal dialogue between the addressee and the author. the results of the qualitative analysis, above all, present some interest from the viewpoint of revealing individual tendency to verbal aggression on the basis of studying personal strategies and tactics of information perception used by recipients. the experimental data obtained could be applied to develop the model of verbal aggression taking into account the information source which potentially provokes to manifestation of individual and social aggression resulting in conflict expansion. In perspective the data obtained in the research could be used to detect actual conflict zones and to predict potential zones of conflicts typical to certain society and to social, ethnic, religious groups under conditions of coexistence and collisions of different languages and cultures in poly-ethnic regions.
Chulkina Nina L., Gomes Dias Vassili Blajenoi
The paper deals with an attempt to identify and describe the ambivalent nature of the concept yurodstvo/yurodivyi within the Russian linguistic world? image through various methodologies, including psycholinguistic ones. Hence the present study ranges among similar writings dedicated to analysis and description of cultural concepts and national linguistic world-images. the contradictoriness of the given concept has been foreordained through coexistence of two types of foolishness for god’s sake in Russia. unsound? minded, i.e. insane people, represent the first type. they neither control their actions nor put any particular meaning into them. on the contrary, fools in christ strive voluntarily and deliberately for ‘spontaneous martyrdom’, consciously assuming the similitude of homelessness and indigence, in so doing qualifying for the right ‘to thunder against this boastful and busy world’, without any respect of any persons. the paper is focused on in? depth analysis of all external attributes and intrinsic motivation of foolishness for god’s sake. the ambivalence is identified through analysis of semantics and psycholinguistic meaning of linguistic units describing those items. In so doing data from association experiment as well as remodeling of text associative areas are involved. Such reconstruction is based on scientific texts by prominent Russian authors dealing an issue of foolishness for god’s sake in Russia.
Gorokhova Svetlana I.
The paper approaches the controversial issue of semantic interference effect through an analysis of Russian speech errors using the data of the Russian word association thesaurus and the Russian National corpus. the results suggest that both associative strength and cooccurrence strength are predictive of semantic speech errors, and that the interference effect reflects processes occurring at both lexical and semantic levels of production.
Boyko Boris L.
Memories of war die with its participants but continue to live on in texts. we have analyzed several episodes of the great Patriotic war based on verbal stories of its participants and villagers of ulyanovsk area. the key point of our interest is the attitude of storytellers to the particular events of war. Russian villagers of the first half of the 20th century share ethnical understanding of such categories as life and death, fate, ours and stranger, mercy and cruelty. these cultural aspects are reflected in thematic subdivisions of the article.
Romanova Tatiana V., Malafeev A.Yu.
The paper discusses the evaluative interpretation of the notion of tolerance through the prism of «svoy/chuzhoy»(one's own/other's) in the Russian national consciousness. the problem is considered in the linguistic aspects: lexical-semantic, linguo-cultural (communicative), cognitive - from the synchronic and diachronic points of view. the relationship between the concepts of «tolerantnost'» (tolerance), «terpimost'» (forbearance) and «terpeniye» (endurance) is a controversial question in modern Russian humanities. Both «terpimost'» (forbearance) and «terpeniye» (endurance) are relevant in the system of cultural values of the Russian nation. the main empirical base of our research was modern confessional memoir prose (autobiographies, diaries, letters, notes, etc.) of the Russian intelligentsia. over 17.5 thousand pages of printed text were analyzed. the data testify to the national markedness of the concept of «terpeniye» (endurance) with both positive and negative connotations. on the other hand, the concept of «terpimost'» (forbearance) seems unmarked in the Russian national consciousness. «Smireniye» (humility) and «terpeniye» (endurance) are perceived negatively in the texts analyzed, as traits suppressing one's willpower. the evaluative aspect of tolerance is extremely important. to analyze that, we compiled a mini-corpus of texts about tolerance. It includes texts discussing the issue of tolerance, written in Russian and published on the Internet. the corpus contains 86 texts of 585,167 characters (1.01 MB), 73,952 tokens and 16,718 types (unique wordforms). corpus evidence was used to reveal the main aspects of the Internet users' perception of tolerance. In addition, we identified seven most often criticized qualities/characteristics of tolerance.
Sternin Iosif A.
Inthe article differentvariants ofthe description ofa word meaningby experimental methods are considered. Variants of lexicographic description of psycholinguistic word meanings are offered, satisfying various research problems.
In this paper, the two chinese words had been used, with respectively locking the downward movement and horizontal movement to represent an action/event as an exteriorization mean of perception of time. the difference in their semantics is determined by different notions of time: the label action/event associated with the horizontal motion, motivated as a sequential change of time and is based on the metaphor of the «extension life»; the label action/event associated with the vertical movement, motivated as the axis development of time, in which the each next (lower) point is a continuation of the previous one (upper).