В начале 2014 г. вышла из печати книга выдающегося отечественного лингвиста и лингвометодиста профессора Веры Васильевны Бабайцевой, являющейся главой структурно-семантического направления в современном общем и русском языкознании. В лингвистике с именем В.В. Бабайцевой связано создание теории синхронной переходности, позволяющей объяснять синкретизм речевых фактов на разных уровнях языка, тогда как в лингвометодике (кстати говоря, термин «лингвометодика» введен в научный оборот более 40 лет назад именно В.В. Бабайцевой) - развитие теории учебника родного языка, нацеленного на глубокое, сознательное освоение русского языка и науки о нем.
Kuznetsova Alexandra O.
The article explores the linguistic methods of (self-)positioning and construction of identity in the sports subculture ultimate frisbee. The research is based on the material of 52 description texts of teams and on the data that has been collected by using ethnographic methods (polls, interviews, participant observation). The study focuses on the phenomenon of group identity, in particular on its gender component. The article identifies semantic dominants that form the basis of the construction of group identity; it describes number of gender relevant strategies for (self-)positioning.
Gonsalves Cinthia Ferreira, Freire Regina Maria
Many studies in the field of Speech-Language Pathology are being supported by a statistical method that quantifies data analysis results, generating a percentage that confirms or denies the study hypothesis. In this mindset, the subject is 1 Автор выражает особую благодарность OBEDUC/ CAPES hidden by numbers, or is prisoner of a group as he is no longer seen in his singularity. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the field of Speech-Language Pathology for studies that focus on discourse, especially those that focus on indexing disciplines, such as French Discourse Analysis, which will be stressed in this paper. Aim: to suggest French Discourse Analysis as theoretical support and data analysis tool in the several fields of practice in Speech-Language Pathology, highlighting the fertility of dialogue between both fields. Methodology: bibliography review of papers and dissertations produced in the field of Speech-Language Pathology that have used French Discourse Analysis as a theoretical-methodological device. Results: When using DAit was possible to identify certain discourse characteristics in stuttering; to use interpretation as a therapeutic technique to act upon the speech of patients; to understand the demand of patients from the effects indicated by the subject in his speech; to use listening and interpretation for Speech-Language Pathology diagnosis that is committed to the subject in his/her Language symptom. Moreover, the Speech-Language Pathologist was recognized to be himself a subject in the dominating ideology, which opens space for maneuvering in his educational process. Conclusion: Several areas in Speech-Language Pathology have benefitted with the proximity to French Discourse Analysis as a theory and research method. There is a relation of interests between both fields that favors the dialogue in search for answers to each field’s recurring questions. Discourse Analysis contributes in the questioning of the Speech-Language Pathology field, in regards to its clinical method and institutional performance, discussing ideological issues and questioning the listening, the interpretation and the discourse, in a perspective that looks into ideology and subjectivity, and that can be a tool for data analysis in the practice of Speech-Language Pathologists.
Книги, подобные рецензируемому изданию, - значимое явление в современной лингвистике. Данная коллективная монография стала еще одним и интеллектуальным продуктом многолетней работы научно-исследовательской лаборатории «Язык и личность» под руководством доктора филологических наук, профессора Волгоградского государственного социально-педагогического университета В.И. Шаховского, его учеников и единомышленников. Концептуальные основы книги были апробированы и обсуждены на прошедшем в сентябре 2012 г. общероссийском научно-теоретическом семинаре «Эмотивная лингвоэкология в современном коммуникативном пространстве», который сам по себе также явление незаурядное, демонстрирующее, что реалии нового времени ставят перед современным языкознанием важные задачи, имеющие социальное звучание.
Shakhovsky Viktor I.
The article is devoted to the substantiation of both the subject and methodological aims of emotive lingua-ecology as a new direction which develops the ideas of emotive linguistics concerning the ecological research in linguistics.
Barinova Anastasiya O., Gritsenko Elena S.
The article highlights the means of conceptualizing hapa - a hybrid ethnic identity used by people of mixed origin for self-identification. We reveal and describe the lexicographic and discoursive means of ethnic identity construction in the context of global social transformations. The material was taken from online dictionaries, COCA and Internet forums.
Lappo Marina A.
In this paper, the identity of the speaker refers to the experience of the subject of his belonging to any community or category of people. The role of linguistics and psycholinguistics with regard to their interaction in the study of identity is analyzed. While the linguistic science includes the study of speech acts as an expression of identity and description of the identity, psycholinguistics can significantly adjust the content, the inner meaning of these acts. The paper clarifies relations between the concepts of design and expression of identity, self-identification and self-presentation.
Freire Regina Maria
The purpose of this workshop is to present the research project “Literacy and its avatars” to contribute to the production of knowledge through research applied to education that underpin on the advances in the field of speech pathology in its articulation with the development of reading and writing. This goal goes beyond raising issues that may explain children’s low academic performance and the high demand in specialized health centers; it aims to transform this context towards a better training of professionals who work with literacy. The project, comprising more than 20 elements, rests on the conduction of a series of activities: monthly meetings of the entire group and weekly meetings of various subgroups: teachers of basic education; undergraduate students in psychology; master’s students; doctorate students; visits to schools; teacher’s training; observation of special classes and scientific events. These activities and the research arising therefrom will be the subject of the papers to be presented today.
Freire Regina Maria, Venezian Janaina, Piccirilli Manoela de Souza, Diogenes Bruna de Souza
Based on a scenery where Brazil is one of the bottom-list countries in the Development Index for Basic Education, the federal government has created the program entitled Education Observatory, in order to develop studies in this field. One of the studies supported by this program is the project “Literacy and its Avatars” that faces issues related to literacy and its impasses, based on a field research in two schools in the city of S?o Paulo. Aim: To present one of the work fields in the Project “Literacy and its Avatars” conducted with teachers from two of the schools participating in the Project. Method: This is a qualitative study, of discursive data collection from dialogic activity on themes suggested by the participants. The group was a space where the teachers could speak about the difficulties they face in the classroom. Weekly encounters were held with a group of 6 to 8 teachers in between the months of April and December, under the coordination of two Speech-Language Pathologists and one Psychologist. Results: After one semester, it was observed that the teachers are clearer about their roles in the classroom, and this is manifested through a less segregating approach in regards to the children, where they are able to identify and recognize each one’s singularities. New strategies are suggested in front of their own difficulties and those of their students, considering the avatars involved in literacy. The teachers’ value of their own knowledge is also observed, as well as the initiative to think of research projects for their Masters’ degree. Conclusion: The articulation in between university and school has been promising in the field of literacy providing a space for deconstruction and construction of new knowledge that point in the direction of better involvement with literacy in our country.
Goroshko Elena I., Polyakova Tatyana L.
The article deals with the problems of a new kind of communication - political Internet-communication and the peculiarities of language functioning in the English-speaking Internet. Using the Internet in the political sphere leads to appearing new language forms, changing the old ones and arising new genres where traditional linguistic means are used along with the linguistic means which are a characteristic feature of Internet-communication in general. They include phonetic and graphic spelling, multiple use of punctuation symbols, neglect of punctuation, use of emoticons, etc. Besides the language analysis gets more complex because of using audio and video fragments in a verbal text. One of the examples of a new digital genre is political twitting - a digital genre initiated by the Internet-service Twitter. The unique communicative characteristics of Twitter which differ it from other Internet services and promote successful realizing its main function - informing - are considered. These features include limitation of the message length to 140 characters, high operational efficiency, a convenient search system, both synchronous and asynchronous communication conditions, simplicity and availability of use. Besides, the main linguistic features of political twitting are specified and analyzed in the work. They are purpose, author and addressee, communication time, place, structural characteristics (genre appearance on the computer screen, tweet structure, limitation of the message length to 140 characters, tweet types, tweet themes, multimedia feature, interactivity, hypertextuality, operational efficiency), stylistic features.
Bondarkova Anastasiya V.
The paper is aimed to characterize the genre properties of self-presentation of internet communication participants. Self-presentation which implies developing the certain perception of an author plays a key role in internet communication and has typical language patterns that in its turn allow regarding it as a special genre of internet discourse. The results of genre analysis of self-presentation are introduced in the paper.
Fedoseeva Tatyana V.
This article is devoted to the differences between mechanisms of interpretation which depend on the approaches of the reader to the text as described by U. Eco. Being compared, psycholinguistic and semiotic approaches to communication and texts reveal the influence of the communication model choice on the method of textual interpretation.
Gouvea Gisele, Freire Regina Maria
Introduction: the term semiology comes from the Greek semeion which means sign, thus semiology is the Science of the sign. The first person to use this term was Doctor Henry Stubbe in 1670, as a medical discipline dedicated to the interpretation of morbid signs of a body illness. Semiology as the Science of the sign and semiotics as the view of signs were thoroughly studied by Saussure and Pierce. These authors bring to light important notions in order to think about the concept of semiology in Speech-Language Pathology. For the first author, the sign is tied to a value system where the association of a concept - meaning and an acoustic image - significant, is circumscribed according to syntagmatic and paradigmatic laws, through similarities and differences. For the second author, a sign is anything of any kind that represents something else and produces interpretative effects; there would be three types of signs: the icon, the index and the symbol. In classic medical clinic, it may be observed that the key to semiological understanding was obtained by the description of the morbid signs found in the body, and thus the signs are stable and their value is attributed to a case, according to anamnesis, prognostic and diagnostic values. On the other hand, in the psychoanalytic clinic, the semiology of each case is presented through its singular and unstable signification characteristic, since their semiology is characterized by discursive order and subjectivity. Aim: to study the notion and use of signs in Speech-Language Pathology semiology and its consequences on therapeutic intervention. Method: to establish the notions of sign and Language symptom in Speech-Language Pathology according to prescriptive and interpretative models of Speech-Language Pathology interventions. Results: It was observed that the prescriptive intervention understands the sign as a stable value among what is seen in the organs of articulation and their production of Language, the interpretation of the sign. If, in the act of reading the subject is understood as perception (hearing) and the object as mobility (speech articulation organs), the result is the sign. For example, a series of signs observed in someone’s speech: tongue interposition, flaccid and averted lips, nasal escape associated to a devoiced linguodental emission, refers to the sign of frontal lisp. The therapeutic strategy of this speech articulation disorder would be based on the repetition and prescription of speech articulation exercises in order to correct tongue posture and mobility as well as breathing. However, if, in reading the same case the speaker occupies the place of subject and the other, the place of object, a Language symptom may result. In this case, the therapeutic strategy would not reside in oral mobility, but on the discourse and the effects of the speech of the subject and the Speech-Language therapist. Conclusion: The sign in the Speech-Language Pathology practice would belong to the field of meaning and translation of aspects of mobility into Language disorders. The language symptom would belong to the field of enunciation and of the effects of the relationships between the subject’s speech and the other’s speech.
Shlyakhova Svetlana S.
The article offers a SWOT-analysis (internal and external communication audit) of the situation of the Komi-Permyak-Russian bilingualism. Explores the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats bilingualism at different levels: bilingualism and belonging to the Komi-Permyak ethnos, bilingualism and membership to the Russian society, bilingualism and belonging to the world community. Is established, that the benefits derived by the Komi-Permyak from the Komi-Permyak-Russian bilingualism, significantly exceed the threat of the native language by the Russian influence.
Gonsalves Cinthia Ferreira, Freire Regina Maria
In the speech of the child who comes to the Speech-Language Therapy clinic, the discourses of their teachers and families, amidst her own. In other words, the child says of him/herself that which they are able to listen of what they are told. In order to understand reading and writing disorders, attention should be payed to the school discourse. Aim: To identify and trace the positions occupied by the apprentice in their teachers’ discourse and discuss their effects on the apprentice’s constitution as a subject of writing. Methodology: The theoretical basis used for data analysis was the French Discourse Analysis. The data were extracted from discussions in a group of five elementary school teachers in a public school of S?o Paulo, Brazil, during the Continued Education Program. The speeches derived from the subject of the course - language and Literacy - were recorded and later transcribed. Clippings of these speeches were analyzed, and guided the delineation of the teachers’ discourses. Results: The teachers’ discourse is vague, undetermined and teachers are not positioned as subjects, but as working-class representatives, with whom they share the same principles. There are value judgments, prejudice, criticisms towards the students, the families, the community, and the school. There are hypothesis about academic failure, such as: aggressive behavior, fear, guilty feelings from the students and teachers, difficulty in dealing with the social problems coming from popular social classes, drug abuse, violence, contradictions in the discourses of family and school. There are doubts and/or lack of knowledge for educational practices in the classroom. Many times they move from their positions as teachers to those of parents when dealing with the students. Conclusion: The teacher’s discourse puts the student in a subjective position that may affect the process of literacy. The teacher builds an image of his/her student based on the ideology that those who come from different cultural environments do not easily learn how to read and write. There is a belief system in the teacher’s discourse, based on imagination, that may contribute to academic failure. The teachers’ conceptions must be questioned, so that the apprentice may change places in their discourse and, thus, interfere in the process of referral to the Speech-Language Pathology office, and contribute to the clinical practice by the interaction among clinic/family/school.
Chugunova Svetlana A.
Cognitive science today is in many ways embodied cognitive science. It holds that the nature of the human mind is largely determined by the form of the human body, and opposition of primary and secondary concepts is in many respects a convention. On the view of the Conceptual Metaphor framework pioneered by Lakoff and Johnson (1980) motion and spatial concepts metaphorically structure temporal concepts. From the phenomenological point, temporality constitutes a real experience. Cognition is temporal at base (Evans, 2004). Conceptualization of time is much dependent on the two body directions or axes: the front/back axis and the bottom/up axis. As a rule, the left/right body axis is ignored in temporal cognition research.
KYUCHUKOV HRISTO, VILLEIRS JILL DE
The paper presents preliminary findings form a research with Roma children from Bulgaria. 30 Roma children between the age of 3;0 - 6;0 years old were tested with specially developed test to measuring the level of knowledge of 9 grammatical categories in Romani language, however in the paper are presented only results about the knowledge of 3 categories: wh- questions, wh -complement and passives. The Roma children are normally developing, The results show that with the growth of the age the knowledge of the children on these three categories increase as well.
Шаховский Виктор Иванович (Viktor I. Shakhovsky) [09.01.1939, г. Николаевск, Волгоградской обл.] - российский языковед; специалист в области эмотиологии (лингвистики эмоций), доктор филологических наук (1988), профессор, заслуженный деятель науки РФ (1999), почетный доктор Волгоградского государственного педагогического университета, зав. кафедрой языкознания ВГПУ (с 1989).