БУБНОВА ИРИНА АЛЕКСАНДРОВНА
The article discusses the problem of social identity crisis including its ethnic component as one of manifestation of globalization process. from the author’s point of view, in modern Russia this crisis has become apparent among young people because Russian culture vales are fading down from the cognitive base of this social group as a constituent part of Russian lingvo-cultural society. the author gives proofs of the fact that classical education was aimed to national personality formation, and that task was fulfilled through national literature studies. Nowadays, as the author affirms, national literature gradually ceases to pass national values into individual conscience owing to the fact that a whole number of psycholinguistic methods of influence are applied in modern education. analyzing the content of a literature textbook that is widely used at schools in Russia today, the author demonstrates the ways that allow not only directing and controlling the process of construction of negative attitude to Russian history and culture, but also creating definite values, and meanings of words in pupils’ conscience. Moreover, the author argues that a modern literature textbook is becoming one of the sources of social identity crisis and an effective tool, which helps to form the definite type of thinking, and, finally, the definite type of personality that does not meet the needs of a national state.
Kozlova Еlena А.
The purpose of this article is the analysis of cognitions, which allows to identify the value orientations of individuals and to predict possible gaps in the Russian national consciousness through analysis of the content of the conceptual space of the young generation of the Russians. cognitive analysis is closely related to the linguistic-cultural and pragmalinguistic approaches. the postulates, showing a high theoretical and practical value of the concept of linguistic personality for pragmalinguistics, are discussed since the relying on the basic concepts of linguistic consciousness makes possible the impact in any kind of discourse. Highly developed linguistic and cultural system of concepts enables the implementation of pragma-аesthetic strategy, aimed at the formation of the necessary representations through the use of language for informational, argumentative or advertising exposure. Points of view on the structure of the concept and methods of its research are investigated. theoretical material of the article deepens by the material of the experiment, provided by the author, which discovered gaps in the lexical meaning of bookish, neutral, colloquial and vernacular words. It has been suggested, that the manipulative aggressive technology will be in the first place in communications in case of high frequency of cultural language gaps. the attempts of the subjects to fill in the gaps by assuming, or guessing the lexical meaning of the suggested words are, in the author's opinion, valuable material for naming.
ВДОВИЧЕНКО АНДРЕЙ ВИКТОРОВИЧ
The article presents the complex of theoretical questions which are raised at implementation of the project «Development of the communicative model of verbal process in the conditions of the crisis of the language model» supported by Russian Science foundation (2017). the attention of research team is focused on the sense-production in natural verbal process. Depending on the ways of interpretation of the sense produced in speaking (writing), any research program can be recognized as language one or communicative one. the first is characterized by special attention to verbal signs, their uniformity and systematicity, relations among themselves and with users, fixed in the concept of «language». at the same time within a language paradigm the integral characteristics of natural verbal process are obviously ignored: actionality, situativeness, communicativeness, individual cognitivity, interpretiveness. on this background the communicative paradigm shows more realistic disposition of theoretical objects. Verbal action admits a special case of communicative action which, in turn, is a special case of individual’s conscious action. Interpretation of verbal process (as well as in the case of any activity) is considered as understanding of a semiotic act. allocation of units of verbal process appears a utilitarian procedure. within the project, experiments are regarded as a means to illustrate and confirm the communicative model of verbal process, to critically rethink the language model.
МОНГИЛЁВА НАТАЛЬЯ ВИКТОРОВНА
The aim of the study is the analysis of oral statements about family of Russian and Russian-language Kazakh respondents of 17-35 years, made in Russian for identifying common and ethno-cultural signs of the semantic space «My family». Discourse about one’s own family, is not only personally painted, but it also has a strong value orientation, which regardless of the language statement retains the ethnocultural orientation. «My family» is a multi-component form, nuclear parts of which are members of the family, united by a common place of residence and a joint activity (pastime). ethnocultural aspect is reflected by differences in the emotional background of statements, various degrees of accentuation signs of accommodation and the time of cohabitation. In identification yourself as part of a family group for the Russians the fact of existence of the family and friends is more significant, for the Kazakh respondents, the interaction of the speaker and other members of the family group is more important.
КАСЫМАЛИЕВА КАЙРКУЛ ЭСЕНГУЛОВНА
This paper presents the analysis of the cultural idioglossia of the MouNtaINS as one of the key components of the author's linguistic picture of the world of Kyrgyz writer chinghiz aitmatov. Reconstruction of ethnocultural idioglossia MouNtaINS revealed the linguistic picture of the world of the bilingual writer. the associative field MouNtaINS is presented in the form of “semantic geshtalt”. the author of the article arrives at the conclusion that ethnocultural idioglossia MouNtaINS in the Kyrgyz linguistic consciousness contains Kyrgyz ethnic cultural specific knowledge about the model of the natural space.
НИКУЛИЧЕВА ДИНА БОРИСОВНА
БОЙКО БОРИС ЛЕОНИДОВИЧ
Naming of the enemy in the letters of front line soldiers in the early months of the great Patriotic war have been formed by the rhetoric of the state ideology and mediated by newspapers, motion pictures and agitprop figures. upon the beginning of the war unclear images of a potential enemy that existed before the conflict gained specifics in lexical expressive units - fascist, fritz, beast, monster, viper, - and were clarified through such attributes as insidious, treacherous, brutal, etc. the verbs such as smash, destroy, defeat and colocations such as go through fire and ice for the Fatherland, give life for the Motherland, fight up to the last ditch show the patterns of citizens’ behavior when defending the fatherland. the confidence in victory over the enemy is inspired by the success of the previous fights against invaders. the verbal picture of the war, the assessment of what is happening, the attitude towards the enemy and the tasks for its destruction are appropriated, in the language of psychology - internalized, by mass and individual consciousness and then repeatedly reproduced in the letters of soldiers and officers from the front. an analysis of the front letters of the early months of the war, of the verbal means to name the enemy - fascist germany and its armed forces, testifies to the assimilation by Soviet soldiers and officers of the assessments of the war and the enemy by J. V. Stalin in his address to the people on 3 July 1941. In the texts of front-line letters, their authors reproduced and supplemented the verbal means of emotional evaluation of what was happening. a selective analysis of the naming of the enemy in the front-line letters testifies to the correlation of the content of individual consciousness with the content of mass consciousness, which was created from the outside and mediated by the agitprop texts. at the lexical level, they are rooted in the general fund of Russian verbal imagery. a person turns to the speech experience of the society to «extinguish» the images of consciousness that meet the need to express their attitude towards the enemy, to the current events of the war, to the tasks of destroying the enemy.
ЕСЕНОВА ТАМАРА САРАНГОВНА, ХАРЧЕВНИКОВА РОЗА ПЮРВЕНОВНА, ЕСЕНОВА ГАЛИНА БОРИСОВНА
Based on the analysis of lexical means of designations of a man’s external appearance it is stated that the Kalmyks set a stress on a person’s physical characteristics focusing on height, bodybuild, age, describing the face, ears, forehead, hands, feet, eyes, clothes. thus, they evaluate the features of appearance positively or negatively. the Kalmyks evaluate height, obesity, untidiness negatively but strong physique, neatness, youthfulness are evaluated positively. Most designations of external appearance are neutral. Natural and climatic habitat and economic activities contributed to the development of the Kalmyks’ keen hearing and sharp sight, formed endurance, strong physique that were recorded in the lexical means of the Kalmyk language as well as in the descriptions of scientists, travelers and missionaries. Survey results indicate the dynamics of the evaluation of the external appearance of a human.
ТАРАСОВ ЕВГЕНИЙ ФЕДОРОВИЧ
The article focuses on the theory of verbal and non-verbal context of verbal actions, which, in the form of communication and objective activity, determines the goals and therefore the meanings of verbal actions. the article demonstrates that all speech practices go back to verbal actions seeking to solve the tasks related to the organization of communication and cooperation. the article argues that a task specific verbal action is a unit of analysis explaining the functions of verbal utterances produced by the members of a socium.
АЛЕКСЕЕВА СВЕТЛАНА ВЛАДИМИРОВНА, СЛЮСАРЬ НАТАЛИЯ АНАТОЛЬЕВНА
В целом ряде психолингвистических экспериментов исследуется влияние на восприятие слова близких по написанию слов, или орфографических соседей (например, крот - корт). Обращение к такому материалу позволяет выявить некоторые закономерности восприятия графического облика слов при чтении и поиска слов в ментальном лексиконе, а также пролить свет на ряд других актуальных для психолингвистики проблем. Однако на материале русского языка такого рода экспериментов практически нет - возможно, в силу отсутствия ресурса для автоматизированного подбора соседей, сбалансированных по разным параметрам. В данной работе мы представляем такой ресурс - базу данных StimulStat, а также результаты эксперимента, в котором она была использована. В ряде экспериментов, изучающих слова-соседи с перестановкой соседних букв, ставился вопрос, какую роль играет то, происходит ли перестановка внутри одной морфемы или на стыке морфем. Это позволяет понять, происходит ли при восприятии многоморфемных слов морфологическая декомпозиция, и если происходит, то на каком этапе. В отличие от большинства более ранних исследований, в проведенном нами эксперименте (с применением методики лексического решения с праймингом) изучаются не производные слова, а словоформы. На основании полученных результатов можно сделать вывод о том, что формы существительных в косвенном падеже не хранятся в памяти целиком и подвергаются декомпозиции (во всяком случае, если речь идет не о самых высокочастотных формах), в то время как начальная форма обладает особым статусом.
ПОСТОВАЛОВА ВАЛЕНТИНА ИЛЬИНИЧНА
The paper aims to characterize the scientific work of B. a. Serebrennikov’s (19151989) who was a prominent researcher and a top-rank organizer of science. In particular, it reveals the role of his ideas in the development of Russian linguistics as well as the significance of his views for the evolution of the contemporary linguistic thought. a special attention is paid to the fact that B. a. Serebrennikov worked within the framework of the so-called common linguistics, which was not divided into such sub-branches as psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics, linguoculturology and cognitive linguistics that are in progress nowadays. the paper shows that his linguistic ideas and approaches are consonant with the explorations in different domains of modern linguistics. these are the ideas of a unity of the universal and idioethnic in the language, of the correlation between linguistic and conceptual pictures of the world, of the ontological character of dialectal contradictions in the language, of averbal and linguocreative ways of thinking, of the absolute progress in the language and the impossibility to attain the ideal in the improvement of language technique. Different attempts to interpret the categories of “Marxist linguistics” in the Russian linguistics of the XXth century are also analyzed.
РОМАНОВА ТАТЬЯНА ВЛАДИМИРОВНА, ЗЕМЛЯК ВИКТОРИЯ МИХАЙЛОВНА
The article presents the results of the research aimed at revealing verbal variables that dementalise the content of the communicant’s psyche. the authors take particular interest in speech tolerance and proneness to conflicts as personality features. the files of the users of the Internet-forum “club Quadra” (http://socioforum.su/) have been analysed in order to observe the correlation between the psychological (the extent of tolerance and proneness to conflict) and linguistic individual characteristics and reveal specific linguistic markers of each psychological type. the analysis was performed with the use of K. yung’s classification that identifies four basic functions of the human psyche: logic vs ethics and intuition vs sensory capabilities. the major results of the research are the language classificators of psychological types and specific speech characteristics revealed by the authors: dynamics and language creativity for the intuitive type; subjectivity and lack of order for the ethic type; objectivity and consistency for the logical type; categoricalness and statics for the sensory type. the article concludes that the ethical-sensory and logical-sensory types can be considered quite aggressive and intolerant because of being strongly convicted in their point of view and trying to impose it on others. Both intuitive types prove to be less categorical due to realizing the subjectivity of their opinion, that is to say, their speech behavior may be regarded as tolerant towards a different opinion. Basing on the list of parameters for assessing psychological types, an attempt has been made to write a computer programme-classificator that could identify the psychological type of a testee on the basis of their speech. the key method employed in the study has been the frequency analysis aimed at revealing the proportional frequency of each language classificator in each text.
ПИЛЬГУН МАРИЯ АЛЕКСАНДРОВНА, ДЗЯЛОШИНСКИЙ ИОСИФ МОРДКОВИЧ
The article is devoted to analysis of the relationship between communication practices used in various fields of mass, interpersonal and public communication and culture. 142 вопросы психолингвистики objective: to confirm the position that culture is a set of interrelated social institutions that shape consciousness and behavior of people in this culture. to obtain the empirical material the content collected from social networks (facebook, Vkontakte) was analyzed. the complexity of the tasks set in the study, necessitated the use of an interdisciplinary approach. the methods of analysis used were as follows, the method of grain clustering and the method of coordination management of meaning. Data processing was carried out using the software “automap”. the study revealed that the basis of any culture are the institutions of communication that allows some researchers to equate culture and communication. currently, the Russian culture along with embedded models of communication practices entered a period of significant transformation, to understand which requires theoretical rethinking of the categories “culture” and “communication”.
ЖАМАЛЕТДИНОВА ЭЛЬМИРА ХАМИТОВНА
This paper examines the meaning of universal moral value ''debt'' reflected in linguistic consciousness of Russian culture-bearers of two generations: Soviet and Post-Soviet. It contains the results of the analysis of the way the value is represented on the levels of public common consciousness. within the framework of the research on the common level of consciousness the data of associative dictionaries and of psycho-semantic experiment is analysed. the methodology of the research is based on the theory of activity approach elaborated by Moscow psycholinguistic School and the triangulation approach designed by yanchuk V.a. the latter approach allows to integrate knowledge of different layers and the methodology aiming at obtaining the most precise findings. the results of the given research show the difference of the contents of the Sovietic and Post-Sovietic common consciousness representing the attitude of Russian culture-bearers to the moral value '”debt”'. the methods of the analysis have a great potential for further research of different notions.
ЗАВЬЯЛОВА НАТАЛЬЯ БОРИСОВНА
The article reveals the relevance of the study of patterns of communication in emotionally stressful conditions. Psycholinguistic aspect of the problem is demonstrated by the results of the analysis of emotional determination of language consciousness of a person in a difficult situation. Methodological basis of the research includes linguistic theory of emotions of V. I. Shakhovsky, the doctrine of psychosemantics of V. f. Petrenko and the theory of linguistic consciousness of e. f. tarasov. the mainexperimental hypothesis of the author is the assumption that the perception of speech by a person who is in an emotionally stressful condition, is purposefully based on its vital importance. these circumstances lead to the emotional coloring of the plan of expression and plan of content of the text, and subsequent deformation of the semantics of the text. the results of experimental research presented in the paper reveal the patterns of change in associative structure of the terms in the linguistic consciousness of a person under the fit of passion. Identification of changes in the language of the consciousness was carried out based on the data obtained in the comparative analysis of the results given by the two groups of respondents: the «Norm» group of respondents and the «Difficult life situation» group of respondents. the author gives data of associative experiment demonstrating the restructuring of the associative structure of categories and concepts (for example, the terms of intimate and personal sphere). the factors of deformation of the language consciousness function of categorization are analyzed.
НАГОРНАЯ АЛЕКСАНДРА ВИКТОРОВНА
The paper analyzes the tendency to use the so-called precedent names in combination with the noun moment to conceptualize events in contemporary english. Relying on the corpus of contemporary american english, the author reveals the main types of precedent names used in this function. the author looks into the semantics of collocations, reveals the circumstances of their coinage and defines the degree of their conventionalization in speech practice. the author goes on to describe an experiment conducted on SurveyMonkey, whose aim was to reveal the mechanisms of metaphorization for precedent names, on the one hand, and to identify the degree to which this type of collocation is common in real speech practice, on the other hand. the author reveals factors that contribute to the correct metaphorical interpretation of the collocations under study, analyzes the possibility of alternative metaphorical readings on the basis of 122 вопросы психолингвистики subjective associations, as well as the possibility of using other interpretational models (mainly metonymy and literal interpretations), and assesses the degree of awareness in building metaphorical mappings. the paper comes up with the conclusion that the lexicosyntactic model under study possesses considerable productivity and its use is a trend in contemporary american english. Danesi M. Metaphorical competence in second language acquisition and second language teaching: the neglected dimension // georgetown univ. round table on languages and linguistics.
СТЕРНИН ИОСИФ АБРАМОВИЧ, РУДАКОВА АЛЕКСАНДРА ВЛАДИМИРОВНА, ВИНОГРАДОВА ОЛЬГА ЕВГЕНЬЕВНА
The research of meaning as phenomenon of language consciousness in psycholinguistic works of Voronezh scientists is considered. the main concept of the project - the differentiation of lexicographic, psycholinguistic meaning and concept - is formulated and the main methods of the experimental description of psycholinguistic meaning are offered. the essence of the project is the idea that the psycholinguistics is used as a method of the analysis and description of word meaning. the method of semantic interpretation of associative reactions - sememe and seme interpretation, the method of synthesis of associative reactions in the course of their seme interpretation, and also a method of integration of results of associative experiments were developed. also meta language of the seme description of meaning in psycholinguistic experiments is developed. In the project common-language, gender, age meanings, meanings of proper names, synonyms and an antonyms of lexemes are studied. Samples of entries of separate types of the developed dictionaries are given. efficiency of different psycholinguistic methods in description of meanings is compared, principal conclusions are drawn and essential features of psycholinguistic meaning are defined.
НИСТРАТОВ АЛЕКСАНДР АЛЕКСЕЕВИЧ, ТАРАСОВ ЕВГЕНИЙ ФЕДОРОВИЧ
The article makes an attempt to give scientific credence to the idea about verbal and non-verbal determination of speech utterance. the article presents factors of nonverbal determination of the utterance in the form of communication (interaction) and joint activity that determine both the form and content of speech utterances. the experiment verifies the hypothesis of obligatory non-verbal and verbal contexts for the understanding of speech utterances. the authors give reasons for the interpretation of the speech utterance as a speech action. the experiment based on the psychosemantic approach is unique in its form and valid. Results of the experiment permit to conclude that making sense in text perception has the communicative character. Sense development occurs in the process of the author-recipient interaction. the authors have obtained extensive data that characterize categorical peculiarities of evaluations in text perception.
ШАЙХИЕВА ТАТЬЯНА НИКОЛАЕВНА
This article discusses a methodical approach for academic research in the field of social sciences. Qualitative (a single case) and quantitative (Мany eyes) methods, including new information technologies, graphically visualize information, which enables us to receive more precise characteristics of the subject of research in a form convenient for visual observation and analysis. the experimental part consists of researching the process of teaching Russian as a foreign language, the motivations and image of the teacher in the linguistic consciousness of Spanish students. the 1st stage consisted of a detailed interview to research the motivations of students studying Russian as a foreign language. the perfected methodology revealed a system of motivations, a “pedagogical” one of which hadn’t revealed itself previously. the 2nd stage used new information technologies to study the profiles of students of Russian as a foreign language, at the intersection of the combined fields of psychology, linguistics and pedagogy the image of a teacher Russian foreign language in the eyes of the students is described with a positive connotation (good, pleasant, cheerful, patient, brought us closer to Russian culture et cetera) and with a negative connotation (demanding, making us afraid to make mistakes, doing homework). the categories of “personal connotation” and “professional competence” were examined and the results showed insignificant correlation, in other words students didn’t distinguish between these 2 categories in their appraisals. In summary this work consists of the use of new information technologies to visualize the results of data analysis. It has revealed a pedagogical motive and its connection to the image of a teacher Russian as a foreign language in the consciousness of Spanish students.