Vyrenkova Anastasia S., Reznikova Tatiana I.
Chivarzina Alexandra I.
Lyutikova Ekaterina A., Ronko Roman V., Zimmerling Anton V.
The paper presents an overview of the current issues and tendencies in studies of differential argument marking (DAM). This research area is of topical interest in modern descriptive and theoretical linguistics, primarily in the context of the general methodological problem of modeling linguistic variation. Therefore, along with traditional issues such as studies of DAM in specific languages and structural positions, modern research addresses the issues of the universality of mechanisms of DAM, its diachronic emergence and development, statistical analysis and multivariate models in typological and language-specific investigations of DAM.
Nechvolodov Gleb S.
Chernova Daria A., Slioussar Natalia A., Prokopenya Veronika K., Petrova Tatiana Ye., Chernigovskaya Tatiana V.
Parsing in sentence processing is one of the key problems of psycholinguistics. Syntactically ambiguous sentences, which allow for several possible parses, give an opportunity to reveal the factors that guide the choice of the interpretation and thus become an instrument for studying sentence processing. In this paper we present several experiments with reference to Russian. The results may help to gain a better understanding of how syntactic processing may proceed.
Xrakovskif Viktor S., Malchukov Andrej L.
The article presents a research program of the study of interaction of verbal categories couched in the tradition of St. Petersburg Typological School. The developed approach to syntagmatic interaction of verbal categories aims at integrating insights from the studies of typological markedness patterns with the work of V. S. Xrakovskij on dominant and recessive categories, as well as with Bybee’s conception of the hierarchy of verbal categories. The suggested approach seeks to constrain syntagmatic co-occurrence of grammatical categories in reliance to such functional factors as functional compatibility, relevance, economy and local markedness. The article also includes a questionnaire designed to guide a systematic investigation of interaction of verbal categories and their grammemes in the world’s languages.
Petrova Zoya Yu., Severskaya Olga I.
Semenova Sofia Yu.
Grashchenkov Pavel V.
The paper deals with the problem of relations between the syntactic and the morphological components of the natural language. On the data of Russian adjectival compounds, it is shown that at least some of the rules that govern syntax are relevant for morphology as well.
Linguistic subvarieties (social dialects) in modem societies show, as is well known, a high degree of variation. At least in the European context they may often be described as mixed dialects (regiolects, urban dialects, mesolects, etc.) including linguistic traits of the standard language (superstratum) and of «old» local dialects of corresponding regions (autochthonous substrata). The contemporary mixed subvariety in Belarus, the so-called «Trasyanka», contains Belarusian as well as Russian traits. The primary sources for the Trasyanka are, first, local Belarusian dialects as autochthonous substrata and, second, Russian as the superstratum, since it is the dominating standard language in everyday life of Belarusian society. In this context Standard Belarusian plays only a peripheral role, but being taught in schools and institutions of higher education it still has a certain influence on the mixed subvariety, as an adstratum. Many speakers of such mixed varieties can shift freely from the «standard pole» to the dialectal one. In the Belarusian landscape this means shifting between the Belarusian and the Russian poles, with a certain asymmetry favouring the Russian pole. The topic of this paper is the question of what can be seen as the usus (uncodified norm) in mixed subvarieties comprising in principle variants of all linguistic «donor» varieties spoken in the society (as well as specific variants of the mixed Trasyanka itself). Certain hierarchies are described that are based on token frequency of Belarusian and functionally corresponding Russian variants of structural variables. It is shown that, in spite of many differences in token frequency, these hierarchies are very stable in different communicational settings (family conversations and interviews), in different groups of speakers (with differences in the degree towards the Belarusian or Russian pole in the linguistic landscape of Belarus) and even in different towns. The corresponding «middle position» of the social substandard is thus to a large degree determined by typical hierarchical patterns of the quantitative distribution of variants of a vast amount of structural variables.
Fedorova Olga V.