Kuznecov Valerij G., Vel’mezova Ekaterina
Timofeev Viktor V.
Itkin Il’ja B.
The paper is dedicated to the problem of two past tenses in the Tocharian languages conventionally named «imperfect» and «preterit». It is demonstrated that the existing descriptions of semantics and usage of these two forms are unsatisfactory and the treatment of many verbal forms in Tocharian A, in which the formation of imperfect and preterit can follow the same pattern, is arbitrary. The paper introduces a distributional-syntactic criterion of distinction between imperfect and preterit in Tocharian A and proposes a new interpretation of some verbal forms and their contexts. The question of why the imperfect of the verb «to go» behaves so strange is particularly regarded.
Apresjan Valentina Ju.
The paper examines the semantic structure of different types of predicates as well as their interaction with negation. Three types of predicates are considered - physical causatives (such as ‘to pour', ‘to punch in', ‘to drag'), emotional causatives (such as ‘to anger', ‘to sadden', ‘to hurt one's feelings', ‘to please'), interpretatives (such as ‘to sin', ‘to spoil', ‘to make a mistake'). Their semantic structures include two components: ‘action' and ‘result' (which can be a physical or an emotional state, or an interpretation). The hypothesis is that the status of the component ‘action' in the semantic structure of the predicate and, hence, its interaction with negation, are contingent on the degree of control that this action implies. The greater is the degree of control, the closer are causal relations between the action and its result; therefore, these two semantic components are inextricably connected in the semantic structure. They belong to the same level of semantic representation, namely, to its assertive part and can, therefore, be negated. The lower is the degree of control, the weaker are causal relations between the action and its result; therefore, these two semantic components belong to different levels of semantic representation, namely, to its presupposition (‘action') and to its assertive part (‘result'), with only the latter being available to negation.
Sičinava Dmitrij V.
Stojnova Natal’ja M.
Berezovič Elena L.
The article addresses the urgent need of semantic-motivational reconstruction of folk toponymy. The research is based on Russian materials extracted mainly from unpublished ﬁeld card indexes of toponymic expedition of the Ural university in the territories of the Russian North, the Upper Volga region, the Middle Urals. The features of semantic reconstruction of familiar words (especially polysemous) are considered from the point of view of toponymy; the study of toponymic pragmatics and situations of interaction between realia and nominator is discussed; the issues of interpretation of speciﬁc toponymic models that are not supported by common nouns are addressed; the need for new ways to conceptualize mutual transitions in the areas of proper and apellative names is argued for. Attention is given to the auxiliary methods helping to implement semantic reconstruction of place names, to linguostatistical analysis in particular.
Muslimov Mexmet Z.
Kuznecova Julija L.
This paper presents works of the research group led by Luc Steels. The group models language evolution using man-like robots as subjects. The paper uses results of several experiments as examples. We see how robots classify objects (in the experiment robots tag and group different colors). We observe how robots use concepts related to embodiment (concepts sit, lie and stand are used to describe objects’ location). We see how robots acquire language constructions (Russian preﬁxed verbs serve as an example).
Šestera Elena A.
In this paper intonation of statements and questions of the Teleut language is under consideration. The utterances were pronounced by the Teleut speakers and were recorded in normal conditions. The area where the Teleut people live is Bekovo, Belovo district, Kemerovo region, Russian Federation. We analyzed the phrases by help of computer programs Speech Analyzer 3.01 and Wave Assistant using audiovisual method, and relying on speakers' perception.
Dubrovskaja Tat’jana V.
The present paper explores courtroom discourse as a cultural phenomenon. It is aimed at revealing differences in discursive behaviour of Russian, English and Australian judges, and accounting for them in terms of the historical development of the legal systems, social factors, as well as speciﬁcs of national mentalities. The analysis consider three aspects of judges’ behaviour: the degree of verbal activity, evaluation and emotionality, and politeness.
Ivanov Vladimir B.
In order to correct existing systems of description of word inﬂection in closely related southwestern Iranian languages (Persian, Tajik and Dari), status of the izafat and the article is revised. The ﬁrst one is a specialized afﬁx of the vertex marking of the word in the izafat construction within the word boundaries. The second one not only marks the determination, but at the same time can serve as a link, i.e. as a marker of the vertex position of a noun in a word-combination. But as opposed to the izafat, it is localized outside the word boundaries and forms an analytic word form. Besides that, vocative forms are brought into the paradigm of the noun inﬂection that are formed from the initial form with the help of afﬁxes and/or intonation and prosody.
Pečenyj Aleksandr P.
ХОЛОДИЛОВА МАРИЯ АЛЕКСАНДРОВНА