Krylov Sergej A.
The paper describes a General Corpus of the Modern Mongolian language (GCML), which contains 966 texts, 1 155 583 words. We also report a morphological analyzer for the Modern Mongolian language (MML), a grammatical dictionary for 63 071 lexemes, a general table of morphological homonymy. The processor analyzes effectively 95% of textual word forms which correspond to 76% word forms from the inputs of the concordance to the GCML. MML can be described in its quantitative aspect, according to a structural-probabilistic model (SPM) of MML. SPM contains frequency dictionaries (FDs) of MML of different types: FDs of word forms, lexemes, grammatemes, root morphemes and allomorphemes, afﬁxal morphemes and allomorphemes, ﬂexionemes, grammemes. SPM allows to describe behavior of various language units in the written text from the quantitative point of view: their frequency, distribution in texts, compatibility with other units etc. It is possible to transform the usual structural model into an SPM, which is based on statistical analysis of texts (in this model units of language are considered as possessing «the weight», the language oppositions and relations are being measured). The paper reports the top lists of some FDs: i. e. FD of word forms (top-list of the upper 32 word forms having frequencies higher than 2091 ipm), FD of lexemes (top-list of the upper 32 lexemes having frequencies higher than 2627 ipm) and FD of grammatemes (top-list of the upper 32 grammatemes having frequencies higher than 3920 ipm).
Škapa Marija V.
I attempt to demonstrate that in Irish, cleft can express any type of focus (as the latter is deﬁned in [Krifka 2007]). This puts Irish in line with some Nakh-Daghestanian languages and apart from English and French where only certain types of focus can be expressed by a cleft structure, on one hand, and Breton and Middle Welsh where the clefted constituent can be not only focal but also an aboutness topic, on the other hand. In the second part of the paper, I focus on the thetic function of cleft and show that in Irish, cleft structure does not differ from the other morphosyntactic and prosodic means of expressing theticity from the point of view of pragmatics and information structure, and thus, one can hardly assume that there is a direct correspondence between the formal way to mark theticity and the pragmatic and informational value of the sentence (contra [Sasse 2006]).
Gulida Viktorija B.
Majsak Timur A.
Vinogradov Igor’ A.
There are some closely related grammatical categories that are in a very strict semantic and syntagmatic connection. Their grams are determined by each other, and that leads to emergence of a complex grammatical system whose elements are tied up not only paradigmatically, but also hierarchically. The paper presents a new theoretical approach to such type of systems based on the data from some of the modern Mayan languages. In order to describe grammatical systems of this type a concept of «interpreting» grammatical category is introduced. For comparative reasons, the similar language phenomena from Indo-European, Nakh-Daghestanian, and Tibeto-Burman languages are analyzed.
Miščenko Dar’ja F.
Danièl’ Mixail A.
Ganina Natalija A.
The author reconstructs and studies some Gothic language relics – appellatives and proper names which are preserved in Latin sources. A summarizing analysis of the East Gothic and West Gothic language relics is presented in the study.
Èdel’man Joy I.
The aim of this paper is to make more exact the phonological inventory of proto-language system of the Iranian linguistic family. The fragment of a sub-system of liquids is discussed, that is the phonological state of *l. Reconstruction is performed on the base of etymologies of Iranian lexemes which continue the corresponding Indo-European ones containing * l. Words with Proto-Iranian * l in anlaut position are selected as samples for this paper as more significant for Iranian phonological system because consonants in this position are most stable.
Stojnova Natal’ja M.
Borisova Elena G.
The starting point for the paper is the famous article by Ju.N. Karaulov from 1991 «On the state of the Russian language of our days», where a classiﬁcation of the forms and spheres of existence of Russian was launched. The purpose of the present paper is to try to update the ideas expressed by Karaulov by taking into account the developments which have taken place in the Russian language and research on it during the last 20 years. In the new classiﬁcation attention is paid, among others, to the following parameters: who, with respect to the Russian language, is the speaker (native/non-native, dialect speaker, etc.); what kind of characteristics the speech situation has; to what extent the variety differs from others; and how widespread it is in the society.
Kapitanova Julia S.
Zolotova Galina A., Onipenko Nadežda K., Nikitina Elena N.