Toldova Svetlana, L’aševskaja Ol’ga N.
This paper is an overview of the current issues and tendencies in computational linguistics. The overview is based on the materials of the conference on computational linguistics COLING 2012. The modern approaches to the traditional NLP domains such as postagging, syntactic parsing, machine translation are discussed. The highlight of automated information extraction, such as fact extraction, opinion mining are also in focus. The main tendency of modern technologies in computational linguistics is to accumulate the higher level of linguistic analysis (discourse analysis, cognitive modeling) in the models and to combine machine learning technologies with the algorithmic methods based on deep expert linguistic knowledge.
Schaeken Jos, Fortuin Egbert, Dekker Simeon
The present article deals with the phenomenon of ‘epistolary past tense' in the Novgorod birchbark letters. This term refers to the use of the past tense for events that coincide with the time of writing, e. g. посласмь к тобђ шесть боцекъ вина ‘I have sent to you six barrels of wine' (i. e. ‘I am sending to you…'). In the light of the birchbark data, the standard account of the epistolary past tense turns out to be insufﬁcient. In this article, a more reﬁned and adequate explanation for the use of the past tense is proposed.
Šelov Sergej D.
Tugolukova Galina I., Vekoviščeva Svetlana, Filippova Irina N.
Eloeva Fatima A., Perexval’skaja Elena, Erika Sausverde
The article discusses the problem of the universal character of conceptual metaphors. Metaphors are viewed as the main instrument which enables a language to express new meanings. Metaphors are regarded in their connection with an abstract thinking, therefore it is argued that metaphors are not language tools only, but also tools of thought. It is shown that metaphors constitute an important cognitive mechanism which determines the heuristic function of the language. Fundamental differences between metaphor and metonymy, metaphor and comparison are displayed. The close connection of metaphor with abstract thinking determines its relative weight in different types of discourse, and in different languages. The latter depends on the domains of a particular language usage.
This article discusses the principles and speciﬁc approaches to the reconstruction of the Proto-Slavic lexical fund, reﬂected in the last ﬁve volumes of the «Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages».
This paper focuses on nominal tense in Nganasan. The discussion on nominal tense is based on the typology of the categories of tense, aspect and mood for NPs developed by [Nordliger, Sadler 2004; 2008]. The nominal future tense indicating a future possession is а revision of the category of destinative, ﬁrst developed by [Nikolaeva 2009] for Tundra Nenets. All the Northern Samoyedic languages have nominal future tense, which indicates a future possession and which is used in the nominative, accusative and genitive cases. In Tundra Nenets and Forest Nenets, nominal-future tensed head controls the partitive of the modiﬁer (a feature identiﬁed for the ﬁrst time in this paper). In addition to the nominal future, Nganasan also has a past tense as well as a future-in-the-past mood for NPs. Nganasan nominal tenses and mood are compared to nominal tenses in Guaraní [Tonhauser 2006]. The language empirical material illustrating the topic was largely obtained during ﬁeld work sessions with native speakers.
Rudnickaja Elena L.
The postnominal numeral classiﬁer construction is considered that is usually regarded as similar to the quantiﬁer ﬂoating construction. The paper reviews different patterns of this type of classiﬁer construction. The problem is discussed of whether this construction when it is in an argument position (as one constituent) has the same underling structure as the discontinuous pattern with the lexical noun topicalization. Two different structures for the argument-position and discontinuous construction patterns are postulated. Arguments for the «one complex nominal constituent» structure of the classiﬁer construction in the argument position are offered.
The paper discusses a kind of relative constructions without dedicated markers of subordination. The author focuses on the problems related to their differentiation from other patterns, the grammatical means that may imply subordination without expressing it directly and touches upon the diachronic issues concerning unmarked relatives.
Kuleva Anna S., Moxan’ Elena N.