Yampolskaya Sonya B.
Conceptualisation of Hebrew language history at the turn of 19th-20th centuries poses a curious and problematic case for sociolinguistics. Modern theories on this subject, often contradicting one another, have one assumption in common: Hebrew underwent crucial linguistic changes in Palestine during the period. The Hebrew language modernization usually referred to as Hebrew «revival» faced inter alia a challenge to expand Hebrew vocabulary. The article at hand presents an analysis of European loanwords (500 lexemes), found in a daily Hebrew newspaper, published in Moscow in 1917-1918. Orthographic, morphological and grammar adaptation of the loanwords, as well as functional groups of borrowings, are examined, building on the data of Hebrew newspapers of the previous period (the second half of the 19th century). The analysis shows that basic models of loanword adaptation, which are still actual in Modern Hebrew, were elaborated in the early 20
Gippius Alexey A., Zaliznyak Andrey A.
Novitskaya Irina V.
The article presents results of a research that aimed to reveal the extent to which the old Germanic nouns with the same root but different paradigmatic affiliation and derivational suffixes are spread in the Gothic, Old High German and Old Icelandic languages. Recent theoretical research of synonyms at various language levels has enabled us to term the old Germanic nouns under analysis «one-root derivational synonyms». Some approaches are known to have been offered to account for the existence of the old Germanic «one-root derivational synonyms» (e. g. by E. Benveniste, O. A. Ossipova, N. B. Pimenova and others). They all argue that the investigated phenomenon has an underlying semantic or logical opposition as its foundation. A total sampling of one-root derivational synonyms made it possible to divide all synonyms into groups according to the types of their paradigmatic and word-formation opposition. As a result, it brought to light both the most empirically productive word-formation types of the synonyms and derivational suffixes. The obtained results allowed to highlight some shared and unique features of the old Germanic languages.
Varbot Zhanna Zh., Kurkina Lyubov' V.
Shkapa Maria V.
Vilinbakhova Elena L., Zaika Natalia M., Fedotov Maksim L.
Konior Daria V.
Shelov Serguey D., Tsumarev Alexey E.
Alpatov Vladimir M.
The development of linguistics has some peculiarities. Two main processes in the history of linguistics are accumulation of facts and forming the new methods; accumulation of facts increases chaos, new methods overcome it. Different tasks were primary in different periods, some problems became peripheral but then were able to get priority again at a higher level. There are two tendencies in the history of linguistics; one of them aspires for studying language objectively and exactly on the pattern of natural sciences, the other tendency is connected with the study of language together with the speaking person, taking into account intuition and introspection. The first tendency was predominant in the epoch of structural linguistics, the second tendency is becoming widespread now.
Arkadiev Peter M.
Lyutikova Ekaterina A., Pereltsvaig Asya
This article is concerned with the issue of the presence of the DP projection in languages lacking articles, such as Tatar. Contrary to both the «Universal DP» and «Parameterized DP» views, we propose that some but not all noun phrases in Tatar are DPs. We show that this hypothesis accounts for clustering of properties of noun phrases in a number of syntactic positions, including the direct object position, which in Tatar exhibits the Differential Object Marking phenomenon. We argue that accusative objects are structurally DPs, whereas unmarked objects are Small Nominals (i. e. lack the DP projection). We show that this account explains the Tatar facts better than an analysis based on either semantic or positional properties of the object.
Govorukho Roman A., Kobozeva Irina M.
Dybo Vladimir A.
The paper illustrates a hypothesis proposed by the author concerning a tonal origin of the Indo-European systems of multi-local phonologically significant accent. The beginning of the article deals with the systems with fixed accent: the most simple type, in which fixation is carried out by counting the syllables, and more complicated systems, which include the quantity or quality of the syllable into the rule of fixation. The latter, in case of losing the factor complicating the rule of fixation and a natural morphonologisation, become the so-called systems of «free accent» or, more accurately, the systems of multi-local accent. Corresponding examples are given. Consideration of Slavic, Baltic and Balto-Slavic paradigmatic accent systems leads to the conclusion that at their base there is an initial-accent system complicated by the tonal (register) character of the vowels.
Leushina Lilia T., Demeshkina Tatiana A.
Kovalenko Kira I.
Rozhanskiy Fedor I.