Fedotov Oleg I.
Zverev Alexey S.
The Japanese punctuation should be considered as an integral part of the authentic writing system. However, the importance of this field used to be underestimated and until the mid-1980s there appeared to be very few linguistic works on this subject. The latest years' burst of interest in punctuation is mostly aimed at the needs of natural language processing. The study approaches the phenomenon of punctuation drawing a clear distinction between grapheme classes and POS categories, which tend to be readily confused with each other. When not treated as a purely graphical phenomenon but considered from the point of view of grammar, the concept of punctuation appears to involve a rather diverse set of language units. The grammatical features and functions of punctuation marks within the system of written language are found to be identical or close to those of various conventional language units, mainly syntactic grammatical markers. This paper is intended to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach and is confined to the punctuation marks that are placed in the end of a sentence in modern Japanese texts. The punctuation units of this type are argued to possess the defining properties of sentence-final discourse particles used in written language.
Konoshenko Mariya B.
Kozlovskaya Nataliya V.
Sitchinava Dmitri V.
Belyaev Oleg I.
Oleg I. Belyaev
His article deals with several problematic instances of case marking in Ossetic: suspended affixation, case government of the preposition 3 n3 ‘without', differential object marking, the distribution of the forms of k 3r3 zi ‘each other' in the functions of direct object and possessor. I show that the assignment of case in these constructions is determined by the structure of the paradigm of the dependent lexeme. The distribution of different wordforms in these syntactic environments is explained by decomposing case in Ossetic into two categories: “morphological case” (m-case), assigned to wordforms, which has only two values, direct and oblique, and “group case” (g-case), assigned to NPs, which includes all the oblique case values distinguished for Ossetic. M-case corresponds to case in languages which do not allow suspended affixation, such as Russian and Latin, while g-case corresponds to case categories in languages that do have suspended affixation, such as Turkic. The coexistence of these two categories within a single language may imply that they should also be distinguished in typological perspective. The data of Ossetic are compared to similar phenomena in other languages: Eastern Armenian, Indo-Aryan, Kalmyk, and Tocharian A. The analysis is formalized in terms of Lexical Functional Grammar.
Vinogradov Igor’ A.
Leonid L. Kasatkin
The article considers from the phonetic point of view the different cases of dense and loose connection of morphemes in the word in Russian: phonemes in the attached service morphemes (or bases in compound words) are realized for its dense connection with neighbouring morpheme (or other basis of the same word) in the same way as inside the root (including root of compounds), with a loose connection is different than inside the root: unstressed vowels are not subject to the usual scheme of reduction and the laws of accommodation and assimilation, consonants are influenced by the neighbouring consonants lesser than inside the root.
Svetlana Yu. Toldova, Natalia V. Serdobolskaya
This paper focuses on the paths of grammaticalization of the verb of speech manas (‘say', ‘name') in Eastern Mari. The converb of this verb (manən) is desemantisized, it loses the syntactic properties of the verb of speech and shifts to the category of subordinators. Successive grammaticalization steps of this marker can be observed in Modern Mari: in some contexts it functions as a quotation marker, while in others as a subordinator. We suggest two paths of grammaticalization of this form on the basis of the given analysis: the first path involves the context of verbs of speech, mental and emotive complementtaking predicates, the second path involves the contexts of causation and potential situation (in complementation), purpose and causal adverbial clauses. The argumentation for this grammaticalization pattern is based on the constraints on subordinate predicate encoding (acceptability of non-finite clauses with mansn), the choice of pronouns [we focus on the choice of the anaphoric vs. deictic strategy of encoding the textual («original» in [Aikhenvald 2008]) speaker and hearer] and the mood of the verb in the complement clause. We show that in Modern Mari the analyzed form can have the following functions: as a quotation marker, as a subordinator in complement and adverbial clauses, as a discourse marker of hesitation and autocorrection, and as a semantically empty subordinator that is used to express negation with the infinitive.
Kapitanova Yuliya S.
Polikarpov Anatolii A., Onipenko Nadezhda K.