Dymarsky Michail Ya.
The paper is focused on the counteroptative subtype of infinitive clauses / utterances, which correspond to the Ne INF by and Kak by ne INF patterns and signify undesirability of a certain situation, from the Speaker’s point of view. The regular variation of the counteroptative categorial meaning (regret, reproach, advice, request, quasioptative, apprehension, forewarning, and threat) is considered, which depends on a combination of values of the key parameters of the model: the aspect of the infinitive, personal reference of the utterance and its temporal characteristics. The concept of a temporal vector of an infinitive utterance, including five particular values, is proposed. It is shown that the variation of the counteroptative categorial situation is also influenced by the hidden personal transposition and the distance between the Speaker and the Subject of the infinitive construction. The limitations on the temporal perspective for the two models are identified: the first one cannot have the retrospective-antecedent temporal vector, neither can it be used in the retrospective vector if the aspect of the infinitive is perfective; the second one can refer only to the future.
Itkin Il'ya B.
Mikhailova Tatyana A.
The departing point of the article is the Gaulish inscription from Trier No. 3909 (CIL) in which the Latin word cara ‘nice, dear’ is used in the meaning ‘loving’. The author finds many errors of the same type in late Latin funerary inscriptions from Gallia and gives a suggestion, that this error was influenced by the labile meaning of the Gaulish caros, cara, having both meanings: ‘dear’ and ‘loving’. The problem of semantic shift ‘dear’ - ‘to love’ and the idea of archaic polysemantic is also discussed.
Kotin Michail L.
Shestakova Larisa L., Kuleva Anna S.
Levina Maria Z.
The study of dialectal features by the methods of linguistic geography, description of sub-dialects and dialects of Mordvin (Moksha and Erzya) languages is one of the relevant objectives of Mordvin and Finno-Ugric linguistics. The importance of the designated problem is defined by the fact that many of the dialects are under-described, as well as by the necessity to present the originality of the Moksha language, some sub-dialects of which are to date extinct or endangered. This article considers not only the paradigm of indefinite declension of noun, but also discusses the use of variant morphemes and isoglosses of their distribution in Moksha dialects of Volga region.
Paducheva Elena V.
Russian conjunction poka ‘while’ imposes non-trivial restrictions on ontological types of the conjoined clauses. In order to describe these restrictions we need to address the opposition of different types of states - such as perfective state, state of expectation of impending event (or state of non-occurrence of event), state oriented towards its start or ending, etc. The conjunction poka creates a context for pleonastic (or, rather, idiomatic) negation with preferences of use changing throughout the recent history of language. Conjunction poka occupies a specific place in the class of temporal conjunctions, being a primary (i.e. rigid) egocentrical: its tense semantics appeals to the speaker and the moment of speech. For example, in sentence Poka Ivan ne prishel, Masha prigotovit obed ‘While Ivan hasn’t yet come Masha will prepare the dinner’ (example from the paper by L. Iordanskaja and I. Mel’cuk) the state of non-occurrence of event described in the subordinate clause refers to the moment of speech, so that the future tense of the main clause is anchored on the moment of speech, which is characteristic of the future tense of the dialog- ICAL REGISTER OF INTERPRETATION
Uspenskij Boris A.
The aim of the present paper is to clarify some passages in the apocryphal Apocalypse of Abraham (a biblical apocryphon which has survived only in Russian Slavonic manuscripts), especially the fragments connected with the theology of the Divine Name. The author of the paper also tries to reconstruct original Semitic forms which are reflected in the names of God in the Slavonic translation of the apocryphon. Finally he wants to demonstrate that the Slavonic translation circulated in a Russian Jewish milieu in the Middle ages and was subject to revision and amendment. Some Semitisms in the text appear as later additions, which seem to have been introduced by medieval Jewish writers.
Savinov Dmitry M.
The paper is focussing on the synchronic and diachronic study of stressed vowel systems of the different South Russian dialects. A vowel system which consists of seven phonemes can exist only with diphthongs [ie] and [uo], which are the realization of the phonemes /Ь/ and /ю/ respectively. These diphthongs manifest a completely parallel structure. Firstly, it explains the nature of the diphthongal /Ь/ in the Old Russian language; secondly, it supports the view that the phoneme /ю/ appears to be a correlate of the phoneme /Ь/, which is a result of the trend towards the symmetrisation of the Old Russian language system. In the archaic South Russian dialects phoneme /у/, /о/ and /е/ may be realised by lowered sounds [u], [o], [e] and phoneme /a/ - by more front sound [а]. The fixation of the sounds [u], [o], [e], [а] in the dialect with the vowel system of five phonemes can be used as an evidence of the archaism of this system and the presence in it not so long ago the opposition of /ю/ ~ /о/ and /Ь/ ~ /е/.
Sitchinava Dmitri V.