Krys'ko Vadim B.
This article discusses innovative principles and specific approaches to the reconstruction of an Old Church Slavonic text, reflected in the three-volume edition of the Skete Paterikon prepared by William R. Veder.
Arkad'jev Petr M.
The paper discusses the morphosyntactic properties of Lithuanian participles in the light of the cross-linguistic criteria distinguishing between finite and nonfinite verbal forms, i. e. marking of tense, agreement with the subject, expression and case marking of the subject etc. An analysis of the major uses of Lithuanian participles, i. e. as independent predicates of evidential constructions, as heads of subordinate clausal arguments, adjuncts and relative modifiers, and as lexical components of periphrastic verbal forms, shows that in different constructions Lithuanian participles show varying degrees of (non) finiteness and that their morphosyntactic properties are largely determined by the constructions in which they appear. Thus, the notions «finite» and «nonfinite» are shown to be non-elementary and to some extent epiphenomenal.
Arkad'ev Petr M.
Uspenskij Boris A.
The Slavonic Bible was translated from Greek revealing textual correlations to the Septuagint. However in the majority of East Slavic manuscripts one can also observe indubitable Hebrew influences: there are numerous Hebraisms missing in the Septuagint while manifesting direct Slavic- Jewish contacts; they are introduced to correct the traditional Slavonic translation of the biblical text. These Hebraisms are based on the collation of the Slavonic Bible both with the Hebrew Torah and with the Aramaic Targums. The treatment of the Divine names (preserved in the Targums in their original, Hebrew form) allows us to demonstrate that borrowings from the Torah could be translated in the Slavonic Bible, whereas borrowings from Targums were reproduced in the Slavonic text in the original (Hebrew) form. The revision of the Slavonic Bible had several stages and was a long process. The author attempts to define a chronological stratification of different data related to this process.
Poljan Alexandra L.
The paper at hand focuses on existing definitions of the notion ‘dead language’ and analyzes possibility to apply them to Hebrew when not being a principal vehicle of oral communication. I suggest to introduce a Russian analogue of the term ‘dormant language’ / ‘sleeping language’. Such a language exists in a situation of diglossia (an H-language) and can be defined according to a set of functional characteristics. Besides, the paper proposes to interpret the opposition of ‘dead’ and ‘alive language’ not as a binary equipollent one, but rather as a continuum of language states.
Xacatur'jan Marija L.
This paper deals with the morphology, syntax, and semantics of nominal number in Mano, a South Mande language. In this isolating language lacking stable number paradigms plurality is expressed by several eventually coexisting means, lexical (numerals and two number words) and morphological (plural forms of certain nouns and adjectives). Neither of these is obligatory. Moreover, the plurality itself is expressed optionally, as the semantic opposition between noun phrases marked and unmarked for plurality is not plural vs. singular, but rather plural vs. general. There seems to be a quite unusual agreement in number: a plural target is chosen only if the controller is plural, while the converse is not true. Another unusual feature concerns semantics: number word ni is polysemic, its semantics includes associative and distributive. I will argue that number in Mano is a quasigrammeme in terms of [Mel'cuk 1993]: the expression of plurality is regular, but not obligatory, while agreement in number is optional and is realized according to Animacy and Noun phrase accessibility hierarchies.
Paduceva Elena V.
The notion of presupposition, which came into linguistics from logic, brought into existence the notion of assertion. Hence the notion of standard negation - the negation which negates the assertion and preserves the presuppositions. The paper deals with non-standard negations. The first example is displaced negation, a construction in which the negative particle is attached to the verb, and not to the word bearing the main phrasal accent (Ja ne obvinjaju ego v nacionalizme V ‘I don’t accuse him of nationalism’), so that it is unclear what is asserted and what is negated. Another non-standard negation is wide scope, or global negation. It owes its existence to a communicative transformation of a sentence as a result of which the adverbial that was initially the semantic head of the sentence, lowers its status and falls within the scope of the preverbal negation, as if it were an argument of the verb (Ona ne stanet menjat’svoiplany iz-za tebja ‘she won’t change her plans because of you’). The main attention is drawn to the construction with radical negation: it seems at first sight that this negation negates presupposition. It is demonstrated that negative sentences with this construction have no non-negative counterpart. Thus, the presupposition, in any case, preserves its status of a non-negatable semantic component.
КЛЕЙНЕР ЮРИЙ АЛЕКСАНДРОВИЧ