Letucij Aleksandr B.
Gusev Valentin Ju.
Contrary to common opinion that considers Belarusian-Russian mixed speech (BRMS), also known as «Trasyanka», to be highly irregular or even chaotic with respect to the distribution of Belarusian or Russian elements, i. e. expressions and constructions, a series of tendencies towards stabilisation of preferences of partially Russian (mostly), partly Belarusian (more rarely) variants at different structural levels will be described that are based on a corpus analysis of family speech. It is argued that during recent decades BRMS was the code for initial language socialisation for millions of Belarusians and that the acquisition of Russian and Belarusian is to be understood as secondary acquisition consisting in blocking elements of the complete inventory of BRMS that are inappropriate in different social contexts where either Russian or (more rarely) Belarusian is required. The Belarusian situation is placed within a series of speech situations that also encompasses South Germany, where in urban settings mixed varieties of local dialects and standard German is spoken.
Makeeva Nadezda V.
This paper deals with typologically unusual syntactic construction, which is characteristic of Southern Mande languages (Mande > Niger-Congo). It discusses a construction with embedded correlative clause, which can occupy positions reserved for topic: position of adjunct to the fi nite clause (clause-initial position), adjunct to the postpositional phrase and adjunct to the verb phrase. Existence of such a construction can be explained by two facts: clause-level adjunction of postpositional phrases and generalizing positions available for topicalized NP to correlative clauses. We try to fi nd a diachronic relationship between topicalized NP and correlative clauses in Kla-Dan, that can contribute to the typology of diachronic processes concerning mechanisms of topicalization and correlativization.
Fedorova Ol'ga V.
This article surveys judgments about the grammaticality or acceptability of sentences that are the most widely used data source in the syntactic literature, with a particular focus on the relevance of the evidence to the goals of generative grammar. After a background section overviewing the main notions and objectives of that framework, we can trace the fi eld's history in three major periods that are considered in the three subsequent sections: (i) Formative period, (ii) Experimental syntax period, and (iii) Old ideas revisited period. Typically, syntacticians rely on their own judgments, or those of a small number of colleagues; sometimes they rely on the Experimental syntax paradigm. The perspective adopted here is considered in the two last sections.
Selov Sergej D., Cumarev Aleksej E.
Nikolaev Gennadij A.
Klejn Lev S.
In'kova Ol'ga Ju.
The article offers a comparative description of the so-called scalar conjunctions ne stol'ko… skol'ko and skoree… cem that are often considered and treated as synonymous. It is proposed to distinguish, for skoree…cem, between two distinct values, one of probability of the event and one of descriptive adequacy, whereas ne stol'ko… skol'ko exhibits only one value, the second one. The difference between two markers resides in the fact that skoree…cem always remains hypothetical. The author believes, moreover, that scalarity is not a kind of semantic relation between sentences, but a semantic mechanism underlying a variety of linguistic phenomena, including the semantic relations between sentences. Therefore, skoree… cem, according to its semantic properties, is a conjunction of substitution, and ne stol'ko… skol'ko is closer to the correlative structures with nastol'ko… naskol'ko, skol'ko… stol'ko and cem… tem.
Nikuliceva Dina B.
Konosenko Marija B.
It is a well-known fact that African languages have complicated noun class agreement systems, i.e. Bantu and many other Niger-Congo languages, but there is no noun class agreement in Mande languages. However, this does not mean that Mande languages do not have any agreement at all. The goal of the article is to show that some Mande languages, such as Kpelle (< South-Western Mande), have agreement in person and number. I also show that in Kpelle typologically common distributive properties of person-number markers form non-trivial confi gurations of person and number agreement which are not identical in different syntactic domains.
Iordanskaja Lidija N., Mel'cuk Igor' A.
We propose a lexicographic description of the two lexemes of the adverb ODNAZDY 'once, one day': the quantitative ODNAZDY1 (On byl tam tol'ko odnazdy 'He has been there only once') and the temporal pronominal ODNAZDY2 (Sel on odnazdy domoj iz skoly 'One day he was walking home from school'). Similarly to weakly indefi nite pronouns (such as KOE-CTO ? 'something'), ODNAZDY2 [Q] has the following characteristic: the corresponding referents - the time of the fact Q and the fact Q itself - are non-identifi able for the Addressee. Q's non-identifi ability is specifi ed in terms of three properties of its referent: optionality (e.g., suicide - as opposed to death), repeatability (e.g., a heart attack - as opposed to suicide), and triviality (e.g., a visit to the movies - as opposed to a heart attack); if the referent lacks at least one of these properties, the use of ODNAZDY2 in the corresponding sentence is ungrammatical (*Odnazdy ona pokoncila zizn' samoubijstvom 'One day she committed suicide': a suicide is optional, but non-repeatable and non-trivial).
Kuznetsov Valerij G.
The present article is devoted to the legacy of the Belgian linguist Eric Buyssens (1900-2000), whose works are not known widely enough in Russia. The infl uence of F. de Saussure's views on the development of E. Buyssens' linguistic theory is examined together with the latter's major components: functional nature of language, subject matter and concepts of communicative semiology, sign and its structure, semiology as a methodological base for language description, the development of the Saussurean dichotomy between language (langue) and speech (parole), stress on the study of discourse as a new fi eld of research, articulation of language, investigation of children's speech. Buyssens's linguistic conception is examined against the background of and in comparison with other trends in linguistics of his time as well as from the viewpoint of contemporary linguistics. The contribution of the Belgian scholar to general linguistics is assessed. Е. Buyssens went down in the history of linguistics as a representative of functionalist trends and the founder of communicative semiology and theory of discourse.
Minlos Filipp R.