Sideleva O.G., Smirnova Yu. A., Anan’eva N.B.
A modified method for the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) without previous DNA extraction, which is applied successfully in human genetics, is suggested for reptiles. The laboratory protocol is described in details. The preference of this sparing method is of special importance for both genetic studies of natural animal populations that require a large number of samplings and rare and endangered species.
Farzalieva G. Sh.
A new species of the genus Chinobius from the Middle Urals is described. This is the westernmost finding of species of this genus. Males of Ch. uralensis sp. n. differ from males of the related species Ch. opinatus in well-developed secondary sexual characters on legs XIV and XV and in the shape of gonopods. Females of these species are distinguished by the armature of gonopods.
Baskevich M.I., Potapov S.G., Okulova N.M., Balakirev A.E.
Three syntopic mouse species of the genus Apodemus (A. (Sylvaemus) ciscaucasicus, A. (S.) ponticus, and A. agrarius) were identified in an anonymous sampling from the western part of the Great Caucasus using chromosomal- (C-, NOR-banding), molecular-genetic (RAPD PCR), and nontraditional morphological methods (comparative analysis of structural and metric peculiarities of spermatozoa). The chromosomal characteristics for A. (S.) ciscaucasicus and A. agrarius known from other localities were supported. New molecular-genetic markers (for the species studied) and nontraditional morphological characteristics (for A. (S.) ponticus and A. (S.) ciscaucasicus) were found. These markers along with structural and metric characteristics of spermatozoa are suggested as diagnostic ones for the identification of morphologically similar species of the genus Sylvaemus. The species studied are well distinguished. A. agrarius is isolated to a greater degree. The results obtained are used in order to clarify the geographic distribution of the species analyzed.
Mel’nikova Yu. A., Lykova K.A., Gulyaev V.D.
A new species of hymenolepididean cestodes with serial heteronomous strobila, Ecrinolepis kontrimavichusi sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae, Ditestolepidini) in shrews (Sorex spp.) from southern Primorye is described. The new species with a unique asymmetrical armament of the cirrus differs not only from the known species of the genus Ecrinolepis Spassky et Karpenko 1983, but also from other Ditestolepidini Spassky 1954. The ventral side of the conic cirrus in E. kontrimavichusi sp. n. has up to eleven big spines, besides numerous small ones. Among the former, two or three spines are especially large (0.007-0.015 mm). The dorsal surface of the cirrus is dotted with numerous petty spines. There is an asymmetrical dorsal swelling of the basal part of the cirrus similar to that in E. collaris (Karpenko 1984). Moreover, E. kontrimavichusi sp. n., unlike the known species of this genus, has 5-7 times more male proglottids in series than hermaphroditic ones.
Belyanina S.I., Durnova N.A.
Glyptotendipes gripekoveni karyotypic forms are analyzed. The revealed morphological and ecological distinctions made it possible to level the karyoforms up to the rank of subspecies (G. gripekoveni gripekoveni and G. gripekoveni paragripekoveni). The numerous hybrids between the subspecies attest to a selective advantage of hybrid forms over parental ones.
Ivanov V.M., Semenova N.N.
The trematode Rossicotrema donicum is a stimulus of rossicotramatosis in fish in the Volga River delta. The focus of rossicotramatosis appears in this region in the 1980s and it is in progress at the present time. Morphological characteristics of the parasite R. donicum at some evolutionary levels in the study region differ from those of this parasite described from other parts of its area.
The author’s data on the ontogeny of hyobranchial skeleton of the Urodela and Anura coupled with materials on the anlagen of cranial bones (Lebedkin, 1979) allow the conclusion that the basis of the recapitulation of morphological structures is morphogenetic correlations (MC) (the term of I.I. Shmalhausen implying interactions, interdependence, and interference of morphogenetic processes) providing the formation of morphological processes. It means that MC ensuring the formation of morphological structures recapitulate as well as the morphological structure itself. The MC of very distant ancestors may act in the ontogeny of a recent taxonomic group in the case of deceleration retardation of ontogeny rates, although these MC in the ontogeny of closer amcestors are latent. These facts confirm that the high stability and robustness are the distinguishing characteristics of MC. The acceleration of ontogenetic rates may lead to the transition of MC into the latent state and MC transformation, the causal role of MC in the recapitulation of morphological structures being preserved. It looks like that the transformation of MC is rather a result of ontogeny embryonization (this term implies the displacement of the structure formation onto the earlier developmental stages) than the ontogeny rationalization (process of secondary simplification of ontogeny).
The new species Parameira baidarica sp. n., which is close to P. taurica Magn. et Os., is described. A key to the identification for all species of this genus and a review of the fauna of Ukraine are given.
Chistyakov S.V., Vostroilov A.V.
The studies of rumen ciliate protozoa in ruminants showed that representatives of 11 genera of the family Opryoscolescidae and 3 genera of Holotricha ciliate protozoa actively digested polymers of plant cell walls having necessary enzymes for this process. Large plant parts are crushed under the influence of ciliate protozoa, plant tissues become looser and more available for cellulolytic bacteria and fungi. At the same time, part of the plant material is used for needs of ciliate protozoa themselves.
Milovanov A.E., Simchuk A.P., Ivashov A.V.
Parallel rows of completely homologous mutable forms were revealed in syntopic populations of Colias crocea and C. erate. The studies were based on the examination of genitalia in three serial samplings (total sampling size is 354 specimens: 294 - C. crocea Fourc. males and 60 - C. erate Esp. males vic Simferopol, 1997-2000) from the same habitat in the forest-steppe Crimea. The outline of the valve margin is considered as a diagnostic criterion for the identification of species. The electrophoretic testing of 12 allozyme loci in two serial samplings (2000 and 2002) showed statistically significant differences between C. crocea and C. erate only in the NadH-dehydrogenase locus. These species differed to a lesser degree in the aldehyde-dehydrogenase locus. Paratypical form (hybrids) of both species differed from C. erate neither by the level of heterozygosity nor by frequencies of rare allels. A genetic model and adaptive importance of polymorphism in C. crocea and C. erate is under discussion.
Andronov P. Yu.
The spawning dynamics and spatial-temporal variability of individual and population fecundity in the humpy shrimp Pandalus goniums Stimpson 1860 (a mass shrimp species in the western Bering Sea) are considered based on the materials of studies in 1998-2001. Time and intensity of spawning vary over a wide range between years. The mass spawning falls on late August - early September. The highest population fecundity was in 2000, the lowest one, in 1999. The mean absolute individual fecundity in P. goniums, corresponding to population fecundity, increased from 1893 eggs in 1999 to 2220 ones in 2000. By 2001, it decreased up to 1377 eggs. Fluctuations in relative reproductive characteristics of shrimps were partially stipulated by the changes in the size-mass dependence from year to year. The fecundity decreased in the years of high abundance and increased in the years with low abundace of shrimps. The relative individual fecundity was maximal within the range of shrimps. The relative individual fecundity was maximal within the range of bottom temperatures 1.5-2.5°C. This range is the most favorable for the development of gonads in P. goniums females in the western Bering Sea.
Eighteen species of Nymphon were collected from the shelf and slope of the Kuril Islands and at the Yamskii Islands (the northern Sea of Okhotsk). Five of these species with denticulate spines on ovigers with big teeth are endemics of the northwestern Pacific. Among eighteen species, four ones (Nymphon brevirostre, N. grossipes, N. mixtum, and N. longitarse) are characterized as circumpolar forms. These four species and N. microsetosum and N. diospinum are found only to the north of 43°N. Nymphon apertum, N. kodanii, N. bigibbulare, N. brevis, and N. uniunguiculatum inhabit off southern Kuril Islands and were not recorded to the north of 45°N. The majority of the species considered are sublittoral forms. N. grossipes, N. mixtum, and N. uniunguiculatum penetrate to the upper horizons of the bathyal zone, whereas N. longitarse, N. quadriclavum biporosum, N. bergi, and N. hodgsoni penetrate to a depth of 1600 m. The data obtained allow one to consider the species with denticulate spines on ovigers with thin plate and small teeth as Atlantic forms. Their ancestors penetrate to the northwestern Pacific through the Arctic. The species with denticulate spines on ovigers with few big teeth are considered to come from Antarctic ancestors, but the pattern of their distribution is unclear up to now.
Ripatti P.O., Karpova S.G., Markova L.V., Ruokolainen T.R., Nefedova Z.A.
The photopreferential behavior of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea Oliv. and its relation to the content and composition of lipids in its tissues were studied. The individuals preferring light and dark zones in an experimental device differed in the relative content of some polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic) in phospholipids.