A new example of antiphonal duet is described in the white-fronted goose, Anser albifrons. This kind of behavior manifests itself as a response to a human approach at the different stages of the reproductive period in breeding areas. The duet represents a sequence of alternating alarm calls of mates. The alarm duet has a well-pronounced trend of displaying under dangerous situations. There is inductive relationship between the effects that provoke a duet and its structural-parametric characteristics. Based on other kinds of duet behavior described for other Anserinae species, "duets of critcal situation" are distinguished. The origin of these duets is related to critical situations arising in bird pairs of families at different stages of the reproductive period. White-fronted geese utter such a duet as coordinate calls between mates maintaining a high level of vigilance and strengthening the channel of communication in critical situations. The coordinate vocalization dereases the level of interaction an control between partners during the implementation of common problems that require a special attention.
Chernova N.M., Goloshchapova N.P., Potapov M.B.
Behavior of six taxonomically closed species of collembola of the genera Proisotoma and Folsomia (Isotomidae) was studied in zoological cultures by direct microscopical observation. Unreproductive forms of behavior, as moulting, grooming, and moving activity, were estimated qualitatively and quantitavely. The stereotypical behavioral acts were erected, the completeness and sequence of which can be used to compare different species. Etological differences supporting the independence of closely related species were found.
The body size, plumage colors, and features of vocalization in chaffinches inhabiting mountain ridges of the Crimea, the Caucasus, and Transcaspian region were analysed. The significant differences in size, the degree of distinctions in coloring and its seasonal changes were analysed in all the subspecies investigated. The distinctions in vocalization and local differences of "rain-call" in chaffinches of the study area are discussed. F. с solomkoi is restricted only to the Crimean Peninsula. The F. с caucasica area encompasses almost the whole territory of the Caucasus, but birds of its northwesternmost part (to 40° E) are represented by a hybrid population with F.c. solomkoi. F.c. alexandrovi occupies mainly the northern slope of the mountain systems in the southern Caspian region, from the Talysh in the west to the eastern offshoots of the Elbrus Mountain (between 48° E and 56° E). F. с transcaspius is distributed in the Turkmenian-Khorassan mountains (from the Kopet-Dagh in the north to the Khaidari Mountains in the south).
Seravin L.N., Gudkov A.V.
Many species of protists secrete specific substances (attractants) in order to attract vegetative individuals to each other. This phenomenon is responsible for their group behavior named contact aggregative one. This behavior plays an essntial role in life cycles of different organisms and may have various consequences in protists. Particularly, such behavior leads to temporary or constant fusion of organisms, so that polyenergid forms or colonies, temporary or constant multicellular aggregates may appear. In the latter case, Metazoan-like organisms are formed in some species, which a capable of moving and orientating themselves in the environment.
Kiknadze I.I., Istomina A.G., Makarchenko E.A., Katokhin A.V., Golygina V.V.
Chironomus yoshimatsui Martin and Sublette 1972, a Japanese endemic, is described in Russia for the first time. It was found on Sakhalin Island and in the vcinity of the city of Vladivostok. The identity of standard banding sequences was established in Japanese and Far Eastern Ch. yoshimatsui populations. The Far Eastern populations turned out to be more polymorphic: nine new invrsion sequences were recorded. Heterozygous larvae comprised about 90% of the Vladvostok population and 19% of the Sakhalin one. Eighteen banding sequences and 20 genotypic combinations were revealed in the Ch. yoshimatsui karyiotype. Photomaps of polytene chromosomes and their inversion variants are presented. The С and D arms were mapped for the first time.
Five new species of myxosporeans of the genera Davisia, PalUatus, Alataspora, and Pseudoalataspoa (klocated in gall bladder) and Davisia (located in urinary bladder) from the flounders Hippoglossoides dubius, Cleiathenes herzensteini, and Glyptocephalus stelleri in the Sea of Japan. All these species difer from other species in large spores equipped by different appliances for soaring in water.
Five new spcies of the genus Exochus (E. simulans, E. Tenis, E. deasus, E., destitutus, and E. utilis) are described from Kamchatka, Primor'e and Kuril Islands. E. simulans differ from the relate E. rontellus Holmgr. by dark color of legs and narrower part of head behind eyes. E. tenius is similar to E. lentipes Grav., E. selenae Tolk., and E. alpinus Zett. by a yellow pattern on the thorax and frons and differs from therm in the narrow areola and almost parallel longitudinal carinae of propodeum, non-thickened antennal flagellum, and red-yellow hind tibiae. E. derasus is close to E. alpinus Ztt. by the shape of the dorsal longitudinal carinae and the degree of development of propodeal costula and color of legs, but differs from it by shorter antennae, yellow face, and yellow color of legs at their base (up to half of their length) and darker color toward their apex. E. destitutus differs from the species E. posticus Kusig., which is similar in the structure of surface in semicircular epipleuras of the third abdominal ergite. E. utilis differs from E. szepligetti Bajari by light color of face an elongated areola of propodeum, but it is simular to his species in color of legs an the shape of the head at the top (with parallel lateral sides).
The new species Laonice rossca from the northern Pacific is described and compared with related morphologically species. The L. japonica type mateiral is redescribed; L. cirrata and L. cinica from the northern Pacific are described. The information about synonymy, ecology and distribution, as well as a key to identifying the species are given.
The new species
In the basin of the upper Lower Agapa River (western Taimyr, southern taiga subzone), 41 species (10 subfamilies, 20 genera) of Staphilinidae beetles were found. The Omalinae subfamily includes 13 species (9 genera), Aleocharinae, 13 (3), Tachyporinae, 5 (2), and Steninae, 4 (1). Each family of Proteininae, Xantholininae, Oxytelinae, Staphylininae, Paederinae, and Euaesthetinae is represented by one species. According to the pattern of geographical distribution, the found species are referred to holarctic (34), transpalearctic (5), Siberian (55), and European-Siberian (3% of the species) ones. The proportion of landscape-zonal staphilinid groups in the area investigated is typical for the southern tundra subzone. Arctoboreal (32%), arctic-boreal-monition (17) forms predominate in the fauna, as well as species characteristic of the taiga zone (20), arctic (20%), and polyzonal ones. The majority of species inhabits intrazonal areas; only 7 species represent zonal communities.
Sinitsina E.E., Chaika S. Yu., Ochirov I.V.
The studies of larvae in 16 Symphyta species by electron microscopy showed that sensory organs on antennae were represented as small basiconic sensillae and papillae and also shallow hollows innervated by 2-7 sensory cells. There are pore plates on an apical segment of the Allatus sp. larva antenna. The ultrastructure of them attests to their belonging to olfactory receptors. Two groups of sensory structures, including basiconic and trichoid sensillae and also papillae, were distinguished on apical segments of maxillary and labial palps. On a sub- apical segment of larva maxillary palps, digitiform sensillae are located. The position of the families investigated at the base of the Hymenoptera phylogenetic tree may testify that a relatively simple organization of the sensory apparatus of antennae and mouthparts appendages in Symphyta larvae is original.
The spider fauna was studied in the southern tundra of western Taimyr (the Nyapan upland). Soil traps were used for the collection of samples. The particular fauna investigated includes 61 species of 9 families. The tax- onomic composition is typical for the arachnofauna of high latitudes: a great number of genera and the predom- inance of Linyphiidae species. The main biotopic complexes of spiders were revealed. The proportion of lati- tudinal zonal and regional faunistic groups is shown.
Shchipanov N.A., Kuptsov A.V., Kalinin A.A., Oleinichenko V. Yu.
Individual marking of red-toothed shrews was carried out using an original device consisting in a pitfall connected with a cage-box supplied with food.l In these boxes, animals may stay alive at least for a day. Traps were also set over the same area. The data on 436 red-toothed shrews from pitfalls an 958 animals from traps were analyzed. Nonresidents were shown to fall predominantly into pitfalls, whereas residents, to traps. About 2% of the animals were caught by the both devices. Samplings obtained by pitfalls and traps differed significantly in the demographic structure, species composition, as well as in the behavior of animals. The community struc- ture assessed on the basis of the data obtained using different traps was different. Thus, the use of traps only of one kind may produce incorrect data on the composition of shrew population, since pitfall may not catch residents and traps, nonresidents. Acording to our data, populations of residents and nonresidents in red-toothed shrews are approximately equal.
The paper is one of the works considering variability from the example of anuran sacrus taken as a model object. A new approach and a new method were used for the assessment of variability (the method of spectra). The variability of a group was assessed relative to the spectrum of all possible anuran sacrum variants.