Orlova M.V., Orlov O.L., Kazakov D.V., Zhigalin A.V.
The first attempt at identifying the faunal complexes of ectoparasites of Palaearctic bats is presented. Several approaches to estimating the distribution and dynamics of parasitocenoses of different host taxa are given both in latitudinal and meridional directions. From an analysis we carried out it follows that the temperate arid zone is characterized by the highest number of species and the greatest taxonomic richness of bat ectoparasites in the Palaearctic. The results obtained reflect the phylogeography of Palaearctic bat families and tribes.
Opaev A.S., Meisi Liu, Zujie Kang
Our work is the first study on the vocal repertoire of one of the babbler species, Elliot’s Laughingthrush. Field studies were carried out in the Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province, China. There are three types of signals in the repertoire: songs, calls (chattering) and duetting. Songs and calls are used by both males and females. The song consists of a quiet introduction (short note) and a louder main part (2-3 tonal notes). There are up to 4 song variants in the repertoire of a given pair. The population repertoire of song variants can be classified into 3 song types. Types I and II represent songs with the main part consisting of 3 notes, while type III of 2 notes. Types I and II differ from each other in the frequency modulation shape of the first two notes. All song types can be used during the spontaneous vocalization of a single bird. But their usage in other contexts differs. Songs of types I and II are more often uttered during vocal interactions of neighbor males. Songs of type III appear to be characteristic of male-female duets. Chattering (calls) is a continuous series of broadband notes. There are several (2 to 5) note variants in each series. Chattering can be used both during a male-male and male-female interactions, as well as an alarm call male-female interaction and as an alarm call. We found an inverse correlation between (1) the duration of pauses between notes, and (2) the number of note variants (‘repertoire size’) in a series. Both parameters probably reflect the level of motivation of an individual at a given moment.
Shitikov D.A., Vaytina T.M., Makarova T.V., Fedotova S.E., Krasnykh N.A., Yurchenko Y.Y.
The apparent adult survival rate is one of the key population parameters of migratory birds. The widely used Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-mark-recapture model has a number of disadvantages, the main of which is the impossibility of separating mortality and permanent emigration. The accuracy of survival estimates can be increased using a multistate capture-mark-recapture model, due to which it is possible to assess the survival of successful and unsuccessful birds separately. We used this model to estimate the apparent survival rates of adults in local populations of three ground-nesting passerines: Booted Warbler (Iduna caligata), Whinchat (Saxicola rubetra), Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava), all breeding in abandoned fields. We studied the reproductive success of 472 marked pairs and analyzed individual capture histories of 814 birds of the three species. The previous breeding success was found to significantly influence the apparent survival of adults. This relation was best expressed in Yellow Wagtail (apparent survival of successful birds, φ = 0.39 ± 0.06, vs that of unsuccessful birds, φ = 0.19 ± 0.06) and Whinchat (apparent survival of successful birds, φ = 0.32 ± 0.05, vs apparent survival of unsuccessful birds, φ = 0.10 ± 0.05), but a little lower in Booted Warbler (apparent survival of successful birds, φ = 0.33 ± 0.17, vs apparent survival of unsuccessful birds, φ = 0.16 ± 0.13). Unsuccessful individuals leave the study area for good, while most of the successful birds return there next year. Thus, the apparent survival rate of passerines evaluated with capture-recapture models is determined to a considerable degree by the previous reproductive success within local populations.
Klevezal G.A., Shchepotkin D.V.
Investigation of incisors of 17 rodent species from 11 genera revealed substantial interspecific and intraspecific variations in the pattern of daily increment on the incisor surface. The morphology of daily increments is described in detail. Interspecific variations in the pattern are correlated with interspecific variations in daily activity rhythms in rodents. Intraspecific (up to individual) traits can be attributed to intraspecific (up to individual) differences in daily activity. We can conclude that the daily activity of an individual determines the pattern of its incisor growth rhythm, not being the direct cause of daily increment formation. Thus, the pattern of increment on the incisor surface can be considered as recording the rhythm of the daily activity of a rodent during a period of incisor renewal.
Widespread polyzonal rove beetles, Philonthus rotundicollis were found living in mass in winter as neutral cohabitants in nest holes of the carpenter ant, Camponotus herculeanus in the coldest regions of northeastern Asia, on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The question is whether the beetle species shows significant cold hardiness, overwintering either deep in the soil or in particularly warm habitats. To answer this question, the following characteristics of cold hardiness in the beetles were measured and compared: supercooling temperatures (SCP), the freezing temperature (TF), the supercooling value (SCP-TF) and the minimum temperatures in wintering places. SCP of Ph. rotundicollis average -11.1 ± 0.7°С (from -7.9 to -18.8°С, n = 15), which is insufficient for hibernating successfully, because in winter with a lacking snow cover the minimum temperatures in ground litter at a depth of 5 cm drop down to -14°С, while at 20 cm down to -12°С. As the beetles are not capable of digging deep into hard soil, they use crevices in dry peat-like soils, carpenter ant holes and such like. The presence of the beetles in the holes in autumn can also be related to feeding on ant larvae, as at temperatures close to zero the activity threshold of the beetles is lower compared to that of the ants.
The current state of natural foci and the population dynamics of the Moroccan Locust, Dociostaurus maroccanus in Turkmenistan are described. Slope exposition, micro-relief peculiarities, plant cover condition and the degree of anthropogenic impact were considered in natural landscapes. Data on the location of locust natural foci were obtained using an “ETREX Garmin” GPS device. Causes for and features of changes in the vertical and latitudinal distribution of the species’ natural foci in the Kopet Dagh and Koyten Dagh mountains observed during the second half of the 20
Davidiana G.E., Savitsky V. Yu.
The taxonomic composition of the genus Plinthus Germar 1817 is considered. The procedure of the dissection of weevil genitalia, variations in internal sac armament, proventriculus and crop in Plinthus species are described, and the terms used for describing these structures are explained. The taxonomic significance of the morphological characters of the internal sac, proventriculus and crop, as well as the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Plinthus and its subgenera are discussed. New data on the taxonomy, morphology and distribution of species from the subgenera Plinthomeleus Reitter 1913 and Plinthus s. str. are presented. Keys to the subgenera of Plintus and to species groups of the subgenus Plinthomeleus are given. Plinthus squalidus is recorded from the Caucasus and Russia for the first time.
The hatching rate of Wlassicsia pannonica crustaceans from resting eggs placed in an incubator at 27°C in the absence of light was observed monthly during 32 months. Under the same external conditions, the reactivation of Cladocera from “young” latent eggs showed seasonal periodicity. With an increasing age of the ephippia, the hatching of the crustaceans occurred irrespective of season, while previously noted long periods of deep dormancy were absent. Endogenous rhythms of diapause termination in Cladocera must be considered when conducting research using forced reactivation by external stimuli.
Egorov N.N., Degtyaryev V.G., Germogenov N.I.
Based on published information and the results of studies carried out in the Olenyek, Lena, Yana and Alazeya river basins between 1977 and 2016, the distribution and ecology of the Pechora Pipit in northeastern Asia are refined. As opposed to the Ob and Yenisei watersheds, as well as Chukotka and Kamchatka, the pipit in the Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Alazeya and Kolyma basins inhabits the northern taiga and has little preponderance to the tundra zone. Its distribution lies between 63° N and 66° N in the Vilyuy and Olenyek interfluve, between 68° N and 70° N in the Lena River valley, and between 65° N and 69° N in the Yana-Kolyma region. The breeding range is fragmented: subpopulations mostly occur in larger river valleys and only in the Vilyuy River basin they can be located in near-watershed places. In some cases, the population density is comparable to the maximum which is observed in Kamchatka with its favourable conditions. The Pechora Pipit nests in grass associations, forages mostly in meadows and swamps, and feeds mainly on amphibiont invertebrates.
Two new species of the oribatid mite family Suctobelbidae (Acari, Oribatida) are described from southern Chile. Niosuctobelba sphagnicola Ermilov sp. n. differs from N. ruga Chinone 2003 by the rostrum showing a median incision and one pair of lateral teeth, the heads of bothridial setae rounded distally, the tectopedial fields not closed anteriorly, the notogastral setae barbed and the body without striate ornamentation. Zeasuc-tobelba tierradelfuegoensis Ermilov sp. n. differs from Z. trinodosa Hammer 1966 by the shorter body, the heads of bothridial setae with thin apices, the tectopedial fields not closed anteriorly, and the notogastral humeral tubercles with longer cristae. An identification key to known species of Zeasuctobelba is given. The genus Niosuctobelba is recorded in the Neotropical region for the first time, while Zeasuctobelba is new to the fauna of Chile.
GOLOVATCH S.I., VANDENSPIEGEL D.
Trichopeltis muratovi sp. n. is described from forest litter in Laos. It differs from the seven known congeners primarily by certain gonopodal details. Trichopeltis cavernicola Golovatch 2016, the only presumed troglobi-ont among Asian Cryptodesmidae and occurring in a cave in central Laos, is recorded from another cave in the same region. Circulocryptusfaillei Golovatch 2016, described from forest litter in a nature reserve in southern Vietnam, is recorded from additional three localities in both southern and central Vietnam. All three species are abundantly illustrated, and variation in both poorly-known ones is presented.