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Muscles of hind limbs in seven Erinaceidae species were analyzed in details. The species
Bannikova A.A., Kramerov D.A., Vasilenko V.N., Dzuev R.I., Dolgov V.A.
The DNA divergence of Palaearctic species of the genus
Laptikhovsky V.V., Golub A.N.
The total number of the fulmars aggregated around fishery vessels in the Irminger Sea beyond the Exclusive Economic Zones is estimated at about of 100000. Discards of the fish processing and fishery waste are sufficient to support the fulmars' energetic requirements. Each vessel provides food for approximately 2000 birds.
Andronov P. Yu.
The absolute, relative, and population fecundity of
Abaturov B.D., Kolesnikov M.P., Nikonova О.A., Pozdnyakova M.K.
A complex of methods for the quantitative estimation of nutrition (diet composition, daily intake, digestibility) in free-ranging animals (saiga, Przewalski's wild horse, wild zebra, wild Grant's gazelle, wild and domestic sheep, and others) is worked out. Two methods for the determination of the animal ration were tested: microscopy of undigested plant fragments in feces and visual counting of bites in the process of eating plants by animals. Both methods are useful. The reliability of the methods for determining the digestibility by the proportion of inert (undigested) plant components (indicators of digestibility) in forage and feces is discussed. Silica and lignin were tested as indicators. New methods of chemical analysis for silica and lignin in plants and feces are suggested. The daily intake of food was determined by the amount of feces and digestibility. Different mehtods for the quantitative estimation of feces in free-ranging wild and domestic animals are proposed. In semidesert pastures, for one summer day a saiga consumes 1.17 kg of dry plant mass, digestibility of the food is 67%. In the same territory, these parameters for indigenous sheep were 1.51 kg and 52%, respectively. In the AskaniaNova steppe, for Przewalski's wild horse they were 8.2 kg of dry plants and 53%, in meadow pastures of Ethiopia, for wild zebra - 7.2 kg and 42%, for Grant's gazelle - 1.71 kg and 61%. In Ethiopia, the digestibility of forage plants in hippopotamus is 45%, in the Altai mountains, in wild and domestic sheep and yak, the digestibility of food is 57-61%.
New materials on some small mammal species
Twenty-eight tabanid species were recorded in the Zilair Plateau (the Southern Urals, Republic of Bashkortostan). The most abundant species are
The paper develops the V.A. Dogiel's ideas about polymerization of homologous organs in animals, resulting in the intensification of their functions at a definite morphological level. The ultrastructure of different-sized caryophyllidean cestodes is analyzed. The morphological analysis of the glandular and protonephridial systems in different-sized monozoic cestodes was performed. The process of polymerization reflects some changes in tegumental glands of large (up to 10 inches)
Morphological descriptions of
The structure of social relationships of the vole
Gil'denkov M. Yu.
Keys to identifying subgenera of the genus
Zaitsev M.V., Osipova V.A.
The craniometric differences between two closely related species,
Larvae and pupae of three species
Vartapetov L.G., Tsybulin S.M., Milovidov S.P.
In the West-Siberian Plain, zonal alterations in summer bird communities are expressed in drastic replacement of boreal ornithocomplexes by hypoarctic ones when passing from the middle to the northern taiga. The impoverishment of the bird communities as well as the gradual and consequent replacement of one species by others are observed to a lesser degree. The summer ornithocomplexes in the northern taiga, forest tundra and tundra differ from characteristic of southern regions by the following: predominance of hypoarctic species; higher density and greater biomass; higher share of the birds feeding on the ground and in water; higher share of vegetative plant parts and remnants of vertebrate animals in diet; higher significance of transpalaearctic and arctic species in bird communities. Winter communities differ by a sharp decrease in the abundance and numbers of boreal species in passing from the subtaiga forests to the forest tundra. In southern part of Western Siberia (from the southern taiga to the steppe zone), the zonal alterations are less expressed and more gradual due to the more prolonged and intensive anthropogenic transformation of habitats. In summer, forest species are replaced by birds of agrocenoses; in winter, they give way to synanthropic bird species.