The collection material on flies of the genus Lamproscatella are revised. The data on the distribution of the species over the territory of Russia and neighboring countries are supplemented. Four species (L. aklavik, L. bimaculata, L. brunnipennis, and L. coenicola) are registered in Russia for the first time. Three new species are described: L. minuta sp. n. from Kazakhstan, L. montana sp. n. from mountain regions of Kirghizia and Armenia, and L. nigricans sp. n. The latter is widespread in Georgia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan. The new species are close to L. sibilans but differ from it in details of the structure of epandrium, surstyli, and gonites.
Payevsky V.A., Vysotsky V.G., Shapoval A.P.
Long-distance recoveries referring to five thrush species ringed in the eastern Baltic region in 1957-1999 were analyzed with respect to finding circumstances, spatial distribution, and annual survival rate. The proportion of the recoveries varies between 1.1 and 2.1% of the total ringing. The migratory distance in song thrush and other species differs significantly as opposed to the difference in the migratory direction between these species. No significant difference in the mean speed of migratory movements was found between the species, although the song thrush showed the higher mean speed and the highest variation of speed (23-763 km/day). Birds from the same populations were widely spread on migratory ways and at stopovers. 80% of the total (601) recoveries of five thrush species referred to the bird killed by hunters and bird-catchers. The highest proportion of the recoveries due to hunting was recorded in France, Italy, and Spain (80-90%), whereas in other countries, such proportion was only 18.6%. The annual survival of song thrush and redwing (for several time periods) varied between 0.368 and 0.420 for one-year-old birds and between 0.561 and 0.633 for adults. On British Isles, where song thrust is a year-round resident, the annual survival of adults does not differ from this characteristic obtained by the authors. So, hunting activities do not cause the higher mortality rate. The hunting pressure probably is compensated for by a higher productivity of populations.
Most studied species of Tipulomorpha (s. l.) have a moderately developed labrum with sclerotized outer wall. Except for Ptychoptera, there are intralabral (labro-epipharyngeal) muscle fibers originating from the base of the labral outer wall and running like a fan to the epipharynx. Only in Trichocera the labral outer wall forms an apodeme located under the clypeus. A part of intralabral muscle fibers originates from this apodeme. The clypeus is well developed and has mostly a form of sclerotized shield fused with the frons and genae. In Tipulidae, the clypeus forms the whole rostrum. There are two types of clypeo-cibarial junction. In Tipuloidea, they are bilaterally interconnected with an epithelial structure that looks like a ligament in Limoniidae, and like a ribbon, in Tipulidae. In all Tipulomorpha, except for Limoniidae, there is also a junction of thickened laterodistal clypeal margins with lateral cibarial ridges. This connection is located near the functional mouth. All Tipulomorpha studied have well-developed tentorio-cibarial muscle. In Tipuloidea, it originates from the lateral walls of the rostrum and not from the anterior arms of the tentorium. The clypeo-labral muscle is developed to various degree in different representatives of Tipulomorpha. The cranio-cibarial muscle is absent in Limoniidae and Tipulidae possibly because of their head prognathism.
Negrobov O.P., Golubtsov D.N.
The paper contains descriptions and a key to identifying larvae of four species of the genus Argyra Mcq. (Dolichopodidae, Diptera): A. argentina Mg., A. diaphana F., A. grata Lw., and A. leucocephala Mg. All the larvae are described for the first time. These larvae are distinguished in the structure of the labrum, ventral plate of pharynx, terminal abdominal lobes.
Tishechkin D. Yu.
The comparative investigation of body size, coloration, and male genitalia structure was performed in Lepyronia coleoptrata from European Russia, the Northern Caucasus, Kazakhstan, the Tien-Shan Mts., Siberia, and the Far East. There is a transitional zone between typical and the Far Eastern forms according to all the characteristics studied. Calling signals of the Far Eastern form differ from those in individuals from European Russia by the absence of the prolonged and complex initial fragment. At the same time, the second part of the signal is identical in both forms. Thus, specimens from the Far Eastern populations belong to L. coleoptrata, but represent the separate subspecies L. coleoptrata grossa Uhler 1896.
The altitudinal distribution of 127 Orthoptera species in the Gissaro-Darvaz mountains (Tajikistan) is analyzed. In mountain regions, the speries are widespread at all altitudinal levels. The following groups of the insects were distinguished by the pattern of their vertical distribution: plain, mountain, and speries widespread at all altitudinal levels. The altitudes of their distribution are given, and factors limiting the distribution of the insects are discussed.
Collections of bivalve moluscs from Lake Baikal deposited at the Zoological Museum of the Lviv University (including the type lots of W. Dybowski) and at the Wien Museum of Natural History are revised. Lectotypes of five species are defined in order to ensure the stability of the nomenclature: Sphaerium baicalense Dybowski 1902 (ZMLU KD67, sizes - L - 9.0 mm, H - 7.6 mm, W/2 - 2.5 mm), S. korotniewii Dybowski 1902 (ZMLU KD68, L - 9.1 mm, H - 7.1 mm, W/2 - 2.9 mm), Pisidium baicalense Dybowski 1902 (ZMLU KD77, L - 8.5 mm, H - 6.3 mm, W/2 - 2.2 mm), P. trigonoides Dybowski 1902 (ZMLU KD75, L - 3.5 mm, H - 3.1 mm, W/2 - 1.15 mm), and P. raddei Dybowski 1902 (ZMLU KD78, L - 3.1 mm, H - 2.9 mm, W/2 - 1.0 mm). The morphological distinction of S. baicalense and P. raddei is confirmed; the latter taxon is treated as a species of the genus Neopisidium. The affinity between S. korotniewii and S. solidum (Normand 1844) and between P. baicalense and P. amnicum (Müller 1774) is shown as well as belonging of P. trigonoides to the group Henslowiana. Status of some other species described by W. Dybowski based on his collections is discussed. Sphaerium (Nucleocyclas) ovale (Férrusac 1809) and S. (Paraspaerium) nitidum Clessin in Westerlund 1876 were found in Lake Baikal for the first time.
Burukovsky R.N., Sudnik S.A.
Developmental stages of oocytes and gonad, as well as stages of maturing the reproductive system in the deepwater shrimp Aristeus varidens Holthuis 1952 are described. According to the size of oocyte and its nucleus, the number, shape, arrangement and size of nucleoli, and the degree of development of follicular epithelium, the following periods are distinguished in oogenesis: premeiotic transformations, protoplasmic growth, and trophoplasmic growth. The first period consists in three phases; the last phase is the phase of regularly shaped follicle. Three developmental phases were distinguished in the period of trophoplasmic oocyte growth: vacuolization, nucleus changes, mature oocyte with peripheral bodies (cortical rods) in cytoplasm. The mutual position of oocytes in gonad is described; the developmental stages of gonad are categorized. A scale for the identification of maturity stages in the A. varidens reproductive system in field conditions is represented. Oogenesis of A. varidens and that of some other peneoidea shrimps are compared. The reproductive system of oocytes is characterized as one of the types of r-strategy.
Specific features of egg exochorion in five Heleomyzidae species of four genera were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The exochorion surface represents a polygonal network with a cellular bottom of polygons (Heleomyza) and a polygonal network combined with longitudinal ridges (Suilla, Tephrochlamys, and Ornitholeria). Species of all genera, except for Heleomyza, have longitudinal lines of aeropylar crypts and separate aeropyles. A micropyle is a small pit or funnel (Heleomyza, Ornitholeria) or a plate with a network of exochorion cells (Suilla, Tephrochlamys).
Tikhonov I.A., Tikhonova G.N.
The role of vibrissae touching, eyesight, and olfaction in exploratory behavior of the sibling species Microtus arvalis and M. rossiaemeridionalis was studied by the “visual depth” test. The species differences in the use of sensory information were revealed. Olfaction is the most significant for M. arvalis, M. rossiaemeridionalis use vibrissae touching and eyesight more successfully. The differences between these sibling species appear to be related to their specific ecological features.
Krasnov Yu. V., Chernook V.I., Gavrilo M.V., Shavykin A.A., Tereshchenko V.A.
The results of studying marine birds and mammals in the Barents Sea and White Sea using IL-18D and AN-28BRL aircrafts are presented. The suggested method (visual aerial census at a height of 80-200 m, flying speed 235-380 km/h) allowed one to detect 13 species of marine mammals and more than 30 waterfowl species. The influence of observation conditions on the census results, as well as merits and limitations of the proposed method as compared to ship-based and light plane-based surveys, are discussed. The use of plane-laboratories equipped with a computer complex and remote sensing facilities may provide a unique information pool for a relatively short time period. Such information characterizes not only the distribution and numbers of marine birds and mammals, but also the state of other environmental components. The merits of the proposed methods are as follows: the possibility to conduct a quasi-simultaneous broad-scale ecological survey over a large marine area supported by digital maps and exclusion of the factors preventing ship-based surveys (responses of animals to vessels, difficulties of studies in shallow and icy water, etc.). The maps characterizing the distibution of kittiwakes and capelins, fulmars, sea ducks, swans, marine mammals over the areas observed are presented. The method is recommended for regional complex monitoring of Arctic marine ecosystems.
Seasonal variation of mass and size of drone bodies was determined in the honey bee Apis mellifera. The highest differences in these parameters were revealed between drones developing in cells of bee workers and drones. Evidently, different supply with nutrients at the larva stage was responsible for these differences. The significant deviation from the mean standard of morphological correlation was associated with the reduction in the body mass and size.