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The mouthparts of the water mite,
Seryodkin I.V., Kostyrya A.V., Goodrich D.M., Schleyer B.O., Miquelle D.G., Kerley L.L., Quigley K.S., Quigley H.B.
Thirty-six Asiatic black bears and thirty-two brown bears were captured and radiocollared at the Sikhote-Alin Reserve for the period of 1992-2001. The Aldrich foot-snares set on bait were more efficient than those on trails. Meat and fish were the most efficient baits. The capture rates were higher in years of poor hard mast crops (acorns and
The changes in the population of forest small mammals for the period from 1996 to 2003 are considered. The most abundant species are
Two Palaearctic species groups of digger wasps of the genus
The study of distal parts of the tracheal system in larvae of Brachycera-Cyclorrhapha of 20 families, including Anthomyiidae, Chloropidae, Clusiidae, Drosophilidae, Dryomyzidae, Ephydridae, and others, showed that the same types of anterior spiracles are present in representatives of unrelated families, and their morphology may differ significantly both within one family and one genus. This fact demonstrates a low taxonomic significance of anterior spiracles as compared to that of posterior ones, the structure of which is more stable within family. The structure of atrium in aquatic and terrestrial larvae does not differ significantly: both possess cuticular branched struts forming a net of microopenings on the surface of spiracular plates. The plastron structure of the parts contacting the entrance of trachea attests to the fact that spiracles can function for some time both in water and air. In larvae of hydrobionts, anterior spiracles develop to a lesser degree, perispiracular hairs are well developed, with long posterior spiracle tubes in many of them.
Nikol'skii A.A., Formozov N.A.
Alarm calls of Himalayan marmot were recorded in Kun-Lun (China), Central (Nepal) and Western (India) Hi-malayans in field conditions. The alarm call is a series of sounds. The interval between the series is typically 5-20 s. Each series consists of short rapidly emitted sounds. Usually, series last less than 1 s; the duration of each sound is less than 80 ms. Quite often, additional sounds may appear between the main sounds. They are significantly shorter and have less amplitude than the main sounds. The intersound period of the main sounds is 2-3 times longer than the duration of sound. The distinctive feature of alarm call in Himalayan marmot, if to compare with other species
Sinitsina E.E., Chaika S. Yu.
Using electron microscopy, nine species of four Apocrita families (Vespidae, Apidae, Formicidae. ажй Ptero-malidae) were studied. In these species, sensory organs on antennae and maxillary and labial palps aie submitted by sensilla with a small cuticular part. There are papillae on the antennae and papillae and ашЕиЗПг^.. button-like, and basiconic sensillae, on maxillary and labialy palps. Such a set of sensory organs in Apacita tarvae has been formed due to the cryptosoic mode of life and nurture from imagoes.
Borkin L. Ya., Lada G.A., Ruchin A.B.
Rakhleeva A.A., Korganova G.A.
Species diversity and numbers of soil shell amoebae (Rhizopoda, Testacea) were estimated in the litter fermentative layer (AOF) of the soil under a spruce forest. Two approaches were applied: registration of trophosoits only (shells with living amoebae or cysts) and calculation of all the shells, including empty ones. These two ways of calculation are shown to provide for different information on the testacean composition and population structure. Living amoebae represented no more than 60% of the total species diversity, the number of dominants being lower. The abundance of trophosoits did not exceed 25% of the total amount of shells. The comparison based on the total species diversity has demonstrated the distinct differences between the testacean complexes in the nemoral and boreal spruce forests, whereas the similar comparison using only living cells smoothed these differences. The data on the total number of shells add greatly to the faunal composition due to potential inhabitants or the species that were active in the biotope earlier. The use of any or both of the approaches depends on the specific aims of investigations - getting the complete faunistic list or estimation of testacean biomass and their contribution to the soil biodynamics.
The illustrated descriptions for two new species of mites,