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Institute ofOceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia
Khatsaeva R.M., Abaturov B.D., Subbotin A.E.
Based on morphological studies of stomach histogenesis in ontogenesis of
Kovalenko E.E., Danilov I.G.
The authors' and literature data on the normal morphology of the sacralurostyle region in the family Bufonidae (171 species of 31 genera) are reviewed. Controversial variants of the structure are discussed. A new diagnosis is proposed for them, for so-called synsacrum in particular. By the example of Bufonidae family, as the most investigated one in respect to the sacrum structure, the diversity of normal variants of sacrum morphology was shown independent of the number of species in the genus (group volume). The reasons for the high diversity of the sacral region in Bufonidae are discussed.
Belyaeva N.V., Dovgobrod I.G.
An attempt was made to use some structural features of the termite external genital apparatus for their taxonomy. Twenty-five termite species of the largest families (4) were studied in detail. Only some characteristics of the female genital apparatus are suitable for the identification of species because they describe only unique sclents. The genital apparatus in males is very membranous arid inappropriate for taxonomy. The structures of the external genital apparatus that are the most important for taxonomy were found. These structures (medi-sternit, basivalvae, parasternits, etc.) are of different taxonomic importance for different families. The medi-stemit and spermatheca opening are strongly sclerotized and suitable for the identification of species of the family Kalotermitidae, whereas the basivalvae are reduced or absent. Basivalvae are well developed in Hodotermitidae species, and their forms are different in different species. In Rhinotermitidae, structural features of the basivalvae and spermatheca opening and in Termitidae, the form of the basivalvae and position of the spermatheca opening can be used in taxonomy. Furthermore, the cross banding pattern of bivalvae is characteristic of Termitidae. In Macrotermitinae and Nasutitermitinae, the anterior edges of the ninth sternum are well sclerotized and form parasternits. The structures proposed for taxonomy vary only within species.
Cludkina M.M., Volodin I.A., Volodina E.V.
Dog barks are complex in their structures and may vary from purely tonal to noisy even within individual barking bouts. The possibility to recognize individuality, sex, and breed in Borsoi and Hortaj Windhound breeds based on their acoustical cues was studied. Throughout 2002-2004, barks of 18 Hortaj and 9 Borsoi dogs (kept in a kennel) were recorded in the standard situation, when the same known person approached them. Discriminant analysis of the data on 1329 barks from 11 Hortaj and 9 Borsoi dogs showed 63.5% of their correct assignment to the dogs that exceeded the random value (9.3%). The average value of the correct assignment to sex (358 barks from 12 females and 375 barks from males) was as low as 67.9% (with a random of 58.7%). The value of correct assignment to breed (630 barks from 16 Hortaj and 630 from 8 Borsoi dogs) was only 71.6% (random 54.3%). These results suggest that barks provide for the information concerning individuality of a dog, 'and to a lesser extent, its sex or breed. The greater breed-dependent than sex-dependent differences in barks arise from greater differences in sizes between the breeds than between sexes. Barks of 3 females and 2 males of Hortaj dogs were tested in order to estimate stability of acoustic features'responsible for the recognition of - individuality. They were recorded twice with an interval of more than 11 months. The cross-validation analysis of barks recorded during 2003-2004 using discriminant functions of 2002 showed only 38.9% of correct assignment to dog. One can propose that a directional shift in bark characteristics took place due to replacement of a cagemate.
The new species of the parasitic copepod,
Tishechkin D. Yu.
Illustrated descriptions and data on host plants and distribution of five
Sixteen species of Phoxichilidiidae were collected from shelf and slope in the Kuril Islands and Commander Islands. They are representatives of four genera:
Three species of the genus
Oleinichenku V. Yu., Kalinin A.A., Demidova T.B., Kuptsov A.V.
The use of space by overwintered females of the shrews,
Davidian G.E., Gul'tekin L.
Otiorhynchus (Pododebistus) korotyaevi sp. п.,
The taxonomical status of bison, European bison, and interspecific hybrids from the Caucasus is discussed. The Caucasian bison hybrid is considered as the mountain subspecies,