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A single female, belonging to a new species of the genus Gorgonolaureus Utinomi 1962, was found in paramuriceid gorgonians in a habitat similar to that of G. vietnamianus Grygier. Despite this fact, the new species Gorgonolaureus helenae is closer to G. decurvatus Grygier from western Australia. Both species have several common characteristics, such as elongated carapace, dorsal horn lacking conspicuous setae, and similar morphology of antennules, mandibles, and seminal receptacles. However, there are some differences between them: carapace of G. helanae is more elongated (its length is 57% of the height, whereas 70-75% in G. decurvatus). Thoracopods do not protrude ventrally to oral cone in the new species; distal part of labrum does not form a long hypodermic needle-like point; maxillae have straight distal parts (do not bent laterally) with trifid (not bifid) tips. A proximal sensory process of the sixth antennular segment has subterminal aesthetasc in G. helenae, whereas it is separate in G. decurvatus. The fifth pair of thoracopods in G. helenae is with 4 seminal receptacles (instead of 2 in G. decurvatus). Other Gorgonolaureus species possess more rounded caparace. The new species differs from G. bikiniensis Utinomi in having naked dorsal horn; the sixth antennular segment is with sharp denticles, claw guard bears 3 setae and denticles (instead of 4); maxillae is with trifid (not bifid) tips. G. muzikae Grygier is characterized by 11-12 massive setae on the fifth antennular segment (6 in G. helenae); claw guard bears 4 setae without conspicuous denticles; the claw is blunt, massive and almost straight (elongated and curved in the new species); mandibles of G. muzikae lack denticles on medial margin; maxillae with bifid tips; it also has 10-20 seminal receptacles in each thoracopod II-V instead of 2-4 in G. helenae. The sixth antennular segment of G. vietnamianus lacks sharp denticles, with shorter and massive claw, claw guard bears 4 setae, the proximal sensory process is separated from the claw guard; maxillae with bifid tips; thoracopods II-V have more seminal receptacles (by 5-9 in each), penis is longer and reaches the middle of the third abdominal segment. G. tricornutus Grygier differs from the new species in having 3 dorsal horns; claw guard is separated from proximal sensory process; the sixth antennular segment bears dense cuticular ctenae; thoracopods have more seminal receptacles (by 8-15).
Two new species of the genus Brachyopa Meigen from Tajikistan are described. B. paradoxa sp. n. differs distinctly from the other species of the genus in the structure of the third antennal segment, which is not oval, but cylindrical and elongated one. B. stackelbergi sp. n. is close to B. insensilis Collin but its proepimeron having a clear bun of hairs, which is not bare. Its genitalia have different structure. A list of species of this genus distributed over territory of Russia is provided.
Volokh A.M., Rozhenko N.V.
The biotopic distribution of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) over the territory of Zaporozh’e, Nikolaev, Odessa, Kherson oblasts (southern Ukraine) was studied in 1977-2000. The data obtained show that throughout the year this animal occurs most frequently (53.8%) in river floodplains, on marine islands and spits. The main brood shelters in the region are holes (49.9%) made by foxes and badgers. They are mostly (38.3%) located within the habitats above-mentioned. During all seasons the animals often rest in simple open lairs (26.6%) and in litter dens (24.8%) as well. In floodplain forests, raccoon dogs (49.4%) more often use them. The animals also dwell in the holes in haystacks. Raccoon dogs have the capacity to use various shelters and biotopes.
The distribution of helminthes in the digestive tract of ide from the Rybinsk Reservoir was studied. The digestive tract in this fish was divided into 7 equal sections. In 41 specimens of ide, 12631 individuals of helminthes of 11 species were found, including 9775 individuals of the trematoda Sphaerostomum globiporum. The species were distributed along the digestive tract in the certain sequence: mass species occupied its central part, rare species were located in edge areas of the tract. When the number of species increased, their linear distributions decreased. The number of vacant sections negatively correlated with the species diversity and abundance of helminthes. Fundamental and realized species niches are widely overlapped. The niches of the species located in the center of the digestive tract were overlapped to a greater degree than in the species with “central” and “peripheral” localization. The correlation between the abundance of different species was weak and unreliable, negative relations predominated. The species of the community investigated interacted that was evidenced by their sequential distribution along the digestive tract, displacement of rare species to periphery, overlapping and diminishing of niches in one species in the presence of others, the definite sequence of fish invasion, and a separate use of resources in time.
The labrum in the Bibionomorpha studied is developed to a different extent. It is elongated in Bolitophila, Sylvicola, and Bibio, relatively short in many mycetophilids, and very short in Keroplatus. Its outer wall is usually sclerotized and rarely membranous (Keroplatus, Scatopse, and Sylvicola). The labro-epipharyngeal muscle fibers are found in the majority of species studied. They are mostly located at the labral base and in Bolitophila, through the whole labrum. Except for Keroplatus, there exists a clypeo-labral muscle acting perhaps as a labral levator. The clypeus either has a form of completely sclerotized shield strongly fused with the frons and genae (Bolitophila, Macrocera, Scatopse); or it consists of a sclerotized shield-like centroclypeus surrounded with its membranous zone (Mycetophillidae, Bradysia); or its sclerotized portion is horseshoe-shaped and also surrounded with a membrane, except for a narrow sclerotized stripe connecting it with the frons (Bibio, Sylvicola). Correspondingly, there are three types of clypeo-cibarial junction: distal rod-shaped, central lamellar, and central rod-shaped, the latter being similar to the fulcrum of brachyceran Diptera. Epithelial clypeo-cibarial junction is absent. There is a tentorio-cibarial muscle in all the studied species of Bibionomorpha, whereas a very feeble cranio-cibarial muscle was found only in Boletina and Scartopse.
Safonkin A.F., Triseleva T.A., Kryuchkova E.E.
The quantitative composition of sensillae on the flagellum segment was studied in imago of the apple surface eating tortricid, Archips podana, after feeding of larvae on apple, currant, lilac or plum. Unlike females, the total number of sensillae on the segment in males correlates with the pupa mass. The number of chaetoid, long trichoid, auriculate and basiconic sensillae changes equally in males and females on all the plants investigated. In females, the number of coeloconic sensillae does not change and that of short trichoid sensillae decreases on plants by the order: apple-currant- lilac-plum. The data are discussed with respect to the influence of the food quality on some aspects of the female vital activities. The decrease in the number of two types of sensillae appears to promote a better scattering of females in search of a suitable plant for egg laying. The results obtained are compared with the known facts on the quantitative variability of sensillae in aphids and locusts.
The morphology, ecology, and system of the scorpionfly order are discussed with due regard for all present and fossil families. All twenty-eight families are divided into three superfamilies: Boreoidea, Meropeoidea, and Panorpoidea.
New materials on shore flies of the genus Trimerina were studied. The new species T. indistincta sp. n. from Finland is described. The species differs from the other Trimerina species in reduced short and hair-like fr-or setae, velvety-black grooves on frons and yellow middle and hind femora and tibiae. The species T. microchaeta Hendel from Kamchatka is redescribed. A key for the identification of four Trimerina species registered in Russia and Finland is provided.
Anthrenus beali sp. n. differs from A. dsungaricus Mrocz and A. sogdianus Zhant. in the structure of aedeagus and pattern of dorsal scales. A. malkoi sp. n. differs from all other species with 7-segmented antennae in the structure of antennae and aedeagus, and A. beali modestus subsp. n. may be distinguished from the nominative subspecies by the longer ultimate antennal segment and a pattern of dorsal scales (all yellow scales are replaced by brown ones). A. kompantzevi sp. n. differs from all species with 8-segmented antennae in the structure of antennae and aedeagus. A. bactrianus sp. n. is distinguished from all species with 8-segmented antennae by the structure of aedeagus and differs from its related species A. bajtenovi by the structure of antennae, longer antennal cavity, and the pattern of dorsal and abdominal scales.
The illustrated descriptions of three new species of the genus Latilica from Lebanon are given. Latilica libanensis sp. n. is closely related to L. maculipes in the structure of male genitalia, but differs from it by long, narrow, and pointed apical processes of male anal tube, style with weakly convex hind margin before capitulum, hind margin of female sternum VII with a long trapezoidal median process, and gonoplacs with large projections. Latilica melichari sp. n. and L. abdulnouri sp. n. differ from all other species of the genus in the presence of a pair of subapical semicircular processes of plallobase. Hysteropterum retamae, Kovacsiana petrica, and K. forticeps are included into the genus Latilica.
Three new species of nematodes of the family Tobrilidae (Tobrilus minor, T. kamtschaticus, Eutobrilus major) and male of Epitobrilus allophysis found in Kuril’skoe Lake are described. Tobrilus minor sp. n. is close to T. parvus Gagarin 1991, but differs from it by longer cephalic setae, another position of vulva, and the absence of biocrystals. T. kamtschaticus sp. n. resembles T. gracilis (Bastian, 1865), but differs from it in the wider labial region, longer cephalic setae, longer spicules, and another shape of tails. Eutobrilus major sp. n. is similar to E. steinery (Micoletzky 1925) and differs from it in a thicker body, longer tail, longer cephalic setae, longer spicules, and the absence of biocrystals.
Traditional taxonomic characteristics (rostrum, dorsal protuberance of the 3
Chernov Yu. I.
The level of species richness, taxonomic structure, and arealogic composition of the fauna in the plateau of Devon island (75°N, 400 m above sea level) corresponds to characteristic features of animal groups in the polar desert zone. The total species richness of the specific fauna studied is about 200 species, including 4 species of mammals, 3 species of nesting birds, 60-70 - insects, 11 - collembolans, 5 - spiders, and approximately 50 mite species, and so on. The diversity of insects in the complex of terrestrial arthropoda is drastically reduced on the background of the increased share of Collembola and Arachnia. The summarized number of species in the latter is compared with that of insects. The entomofauna does not contain Hemimetabola and Coleoptera. The composition of Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera is poor, and Diptera predominate (50 species). Most species recorded in the plateau refer to the category of euarcts, the part of them have features of hyperacts.
The problems of geographical distribution and formation of the subterranean fauna in the territory of the former USSR are discussed. The subterranean fauna consists of not less than 595 animal species and forms. Among them, 195 are considered to be troglobionts. Zoogeographic characteristics of speleobionts in the northern (Central Russia, the Urals, Siberia) and southern (the Crimea, the Caucasus, Transcarpathian region, the Dnestr River Basin, Central Asia, and the southern Far East) latitudinal zones are given. Within these zones, speleobionts differ in origin and distribution. On the whole, the speleofauna of southern regions is richer and more diverse than that in southern regions. The reasons for these differences are history of developing the subterranean fauna and alterations in climatic conditions in the late Pliocene. Speleofaunas of different zones are compared with those in much-studied karst-speleological regions of Europe.