Lapshin A.S., Andreychev A.V., Kuznetcov V.A.
Both daily and seasonal year-round vocalizations of the eagle-owl were recorded in the central Volga River region, Russia with the use of digital dictophones. Two best-expressed peaks of long-term activity were revealed during a year: one since early February until early April and the other since early August until early October. During the incubation period, vocalizations of each bird surveyed lasted on the average 79 min per day. The second annual peak of vocalization was restricted to brood disintegration and the formation of new couples. During that period, calls averaged 63 min per day. The acoustic activity during the nestling period (April to May) when birds were leaving the nests was less strongly expressed: on the average each eagle-owl vocalized 32 min per day. Both in June and July, eagle-owls called little and their general vocalizations averaged 9 min per day. From October 29, 2015 to February 4, 2016, the eagle-owl remained silent in nesting habitats. From spring to fall, eagle-owls resumed calling one hour before sunset, as a rule. In February, vespers started later than in other seasons, on the average 30 min before sunset. Completion of morning vocalizations usually took place 1.5 h before sunrise. Statistically significant differences in the duration of vespers and morning vocalizations were obtained with the use of Mann-Whitney U test (Z = -3.38, p
Kotenkova E.V., Mal'tsev A.N., Ambaryan A.V.
In the laboratory, we investigated the fecundity, fertility and fitness of house mice from Transcaucasian populations. In interpreting the data, we proceeded from the hypothesis of Milishnikov et al. (2004) that the ancestral form might have come from Transcaucasia. It is genetically close to Mus musculus s. str. and has preserved a relict gene pool. Already differentiated M. musculus and M. domesticus have long been introduced to this region as well. All three forms have crossed with one another, resulting in a very complicated hybrid zone formed in Transcaucasia. In our experiment, house mice from Moscow and the Moscow region and from the zone of hybridization in Transcaucasia were characterized by a similar reproduction rate and differed little in terms of its indices. Significant variations were observed neither in different mice crossings from Transcaucasia with M. musculus nor in hybrids from direct and recurrent crosses, nor backcrosses. The rates of reproduction intensity failed to differ significantly from each other, from the reproduction rates of M. musculus, and from those in mice from Transcaucasia. In some cases, the mortality of the young was relatively high. The data obtained disagree with an assumed reduced fitness of house mice in Transcaucasia. No serious evidence has been obtained for the presence of post-copulation mechanisms for isolating mice from Transcaucasia and M. musculus. The results of the studies are consistent with an assumed kinship of house mouse populations of Transcaucasia and M. musculus.
Krivosheina M.G., Krivosheina N.P., Kerchev I.A.
The faunal composition of Diptera (Insecta) inhabiting the galleries of Polygraphus proximus over the territory of Siberia and the Far East of Russia was studied. As a result, 14 species of Diptera were discovered representing 8 families. The invasive beetle Polygraphus proximus Blandford 1894 in the secondary distribution areas was demonstrated to be affected not only by the well-known introduced species Medetera penicillata Negrobov 1970, but also by numerous other widespread predatory flies like Medetera excellens Frey M. pinicola Kowarz 1877, Xylophagus cinctus (De Geer 1776) and Toxoneura ephippium (Zettersted 1860). Four predatory fly species, M. penicillata, M. signaticornis Loew 1857, Lonchaea bukowskii Czerny 1934 and Xylophagus sachalinensis (Pleske 1925), influence P. proximus in the Far East in its native distribution area. Data on the predation of each species of Diptera on several species of bark beetles testify to their polyphagy. Saprophagous larvae of Dicranomyia modesta (Meigen 1818), Chalcosyrphus piger (Fabricius 1794), Xylosciara lignicola (Winnertz 1867) and Pseudolycoriella unispina (Mohrig et Krivosheina 1983) were discovered in bark beetle galleries for the first time.
Lissovsky A.A., Obolenskaya E.V., Kadetova A.A.
We studied variations in skull measurements, foot and tail length, as well as morphotypes of the first lower molar and skull cap in museum specimens of all Alexandromys species occurring in Russia. Our results show that morphotype variations in molars and skull cap fail to completely correspond to species composition. Metric features in many cases allow us to distinguish pairs of species with a probability rate higher than 0.95. We recommend using a complete set of available characters, both metric and qualitative, for the identification of individual specimens.
Parendacustes (Minizacla) papua sp. n., P. (M.) wasile sp. n., Longizacla lambusango sp. n., Luzonogryllus (Squamizacla) palawanensis meridionalis subsp. n., subtribe Parendacustina (Phalangopsini), Phalangopsina clara sp. n., Indozacla gen. n., subtribe Indozaclina subtrib. n. (Phalangopsini), and Brevizacla desultor sp. n., subtribe Brevizaclina (Paragryllini), are described from Indonesia and India. The genus Pseudendacustes Chopard 1928 stat. resurr. from an uncertain subtribe of the tribe Paragryllini is restored from the synonymy of the genus Paragryllodes Karny 1909. New data on the distribution and systematic position of some other taxa of the subfamily Phalangopsinae from Southeast Asia and Oceania are also provided.
Omelko M.M., Omelko N.V.
Three species of the gelechiid moth genus Photodotis new to science are described from central Laos: P. daedalea sp. n., P. lurida sp. n. and P. reclinata sp. n.
Golubova E. Yu.
On the islands and coasts of Tauiskaya Bay, 13 colonies of the black-legged kittiwake are known to exist, totaling about 150 thousand individuals. Most of them (about 100 thousand individuals) inhabit Talan Island. In other parts of Tauiskaya Bay, their numbers in colonies are not high, while the largest of them are located on such islands as Umara, Shelikan and Tri Brata, as well as on Cape Skalistyi, Koni Peninsula. In all colonies, the numbers of birds have increased considerably since the mid-1990’s and remain persistently high up to now. Long-term monitoring shows a considerable shift in the beginning of the nesting period on Talan Island since 1999, this concurring with a later destruction of the ice cover and a low temperature of Tauiskaya Bay’s coastal waters. In 1988-1993, first eggs were found in kittiwake nests between 2-11 June, versus 14-27 June in 1999-2012 (except for 2007). In 2014, a tendency to an earlier nesting was observed. The onset of egg-laying averaged 13 June. In Odyan Bay, where Umara Island is located, egg-laying in some years started 7-10 day later than on Talan Island, this being related to a later removal of ice from its water surface. In 1988-2016, the reproductive success of kittiwake on Talan Island varied from 0 to 69% (average 33.90%), the hatching success from 3.1 to 85% (average 57.7%), the chick success from 0 to 86.2% (average 50.5%). The number of fledged per pair with eggs varied from 0 to 1.19 (average 0.52), the number of fledged per pair from 0 to 1.05 (average 0.41). On Umara Island, black-legged kittiwakes bred more successfully, this being related to more favorable environmental conditions and relatively stable food resources in Odyan Bay. Thus, in 1993-1997 and 2005 their reproductive success varied from 0.68 to 1.25 fledged per nest with eggs (average 1.01), while the productivity from 0.53 to 1.05 fledged per nest with pair (average 0.80). Slaty-backed gulls (Larus schistisagus) and crows (Corvus corax) most often utilized abandoned eggs and fledglings (alive or dead), this taking place in conditions of forage deficiency caused both by unfavorable weather conditions and resource deficit in the water area of Tuiskaya Bay. Steller’s sea eagles (Haliaeetus pelagicus) were both direct and indirect predators on adult black-legged kittiwakes, their eggs and fledglings, but no noticeable damage from their activity was noticed on Talan Island. Since 2008, a decrease in black-legged kittiwake productivity was noted on Talan Island, expressed in a high percentage of non-breeding pairs, a reduced clutch size, an extremely low hatching success and the loss of all or almost all fledglings from hunger. In 2016, against the early and mass nesting of kittiwakes, the parameters of clutch size and breeding success appeared to be the highest for the latest years. This encourages optimism in a successful life of the populations in Tauiskaya Bay, namely, on Talan Island.
Obozova T.A., Smirnova A.A., Zorina Z.A.
The early ontogeny of corvid behaviour was studied in a natural environment, the large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) taken as an example. Research was carried out from May to October, 2012 in a wildlife area (“Small Kuriles”, part of the “Kurilsky” State Nature Biosphere Reserve, Shikotan Island) on a free-living population of these birds. Observations were made of 25 crow chicks marked with colour rings from ten nests since the moment of their hatching (early June) to the beginning of September (the time when fledges became independent). The results obtained allowed us to reveal not only individual forms of chick and fledge behaviour, but also the process of incorporation of the young into the population’s social structure. The development of a behavioural repertoire in large-billed crows in their natural habitat is shown to be about the same as in hooded crows. The difference is that large-billed crow parents go on looking after their young even after the latter leave their nest territory. This may expand the capacities of social learning and skill transfer. Unlike large-billed crow adults of the Shikotan population, whose aggression to their kin is very high, the young show no aggression to other young. Moreover, we observed the formation of positive contacts between fledges from different families during their games. This feature of fledge behaviour probably plays important roles in the incorporation of the young into the social structure of the population.
Red'kin J.A., Ivanitskii V.V., Marova I.M., Malykh I.M.
Based on recordings, the time-frequency characteristics and repertoire size of the advertising song were studied in a comparative aspect in several leaf warblers (Phylloscopus fuscatus, P. schwarzi, P. proregulus, P. examinandus, P. tenellipes, P. borealoides) and the reed warbler, Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, from the mainland (southern Siberia, the Altai-Sayan region and Primorye) and island populations (Sakhalin Island). No significant variations in repertoire size were found between mainland and island populations, but clear differences were revealed in frequency and time parameters of the song between the Sakhalin and continental populations. In all of the species studied, the differences are displayed in a similar way. In Sakhalin, all birds use higher frequencies in their songs compared to mainland populations and their songs show a wider range of frequencies. Possible reasons for the expansion of the frequency range of bird songs in Sakhalin are discussed: (1) a lower number of species on the island, (2) the effect of high humidity on sound transmission, (3) the effect of specific characteristics of the island’s vegetation cover.
Rutovskaya M.V., Osipova O.V.
We studied the vocal repertoire and acoustic activity of short-tailed voles in experiments. Three acoustic signals of short-tailed voles: sharp and quiet squeaks emitted by males and females, and singing by males were recorded and analyzed. We compared such parameters as duration, fundamental frequency, modulation depth, quartiles and dominant frequency. The parameters of quiet and sharp squeaks overlapped completely and form a continuum. The quiet squeaks of female and male songs could be emitted in series. Singing and quiet squeaks showed some differences in frequency parameters: fundamental frequency and three quartiles of singing wеre higher than those of quiet squeaks. Acoustic behavior of the short-tailed vole was investigated in 6 experimental groups. Voles emitted squeaks in 11.4% interactions, and males sang in 1.7% interactions (the number of contacts totaled, n = 1792). In same-sex interactions we registered squeaks, mostly during aggressive contacts and refuge defense. In the opposite-sex interactions, voles squeaked during friendly or neutral contacts, and during refuge defense. Males were singing during friendly and sexual contacts with females.