Vasilenko S.V., Gordeeva (Vlasova) T.V.
The new species Lithostege onochoica sp. n. is described. Its differences from the close species L. farinata and L. narynensis are shown. Female genitalia in the closest taxa - L. ochraceata and L. pallescens are illustrated. The distribution of 16 species over the territory of the Transbaikal region is defined more exactly. Epirrhoe tartuensis and Eupithecia simpliciata were found in Eastern Siberia for the first time.
Bel'skii E.A., Lyakhov A.G.
Color morphs of breeding Ficedula hypoleuca males were studied in the Middle Urals (56°49' N, 59°34' E) in 1997-2002. No males of the 1
The karyotype, morphology of larva, pupa and adult female of Chironomus improvisus are described. The new species is very close to Ch. holomelas by the morphology of larva and karyotype, but differs from it in the band sequence of chromosome arm A and structure of ventral tubes.
Forty Collembola species were found in a disposal tip at Saburovo (Moscow oblast). Species of tropical origin (Xenylla welchi, Desoria trispinata, Cryptopygus thermophilus) predominated. Southern steppe and Mediterranean species were also described there. Litter-dwelling species were the most abundant, soil and epigeic ones were not numerous. The spotted, strongly aggregated pattern was characteristic for the distribution of collembolans. Drastic seasonal changes in the number of collembolans were registered with the maximal abundance in late summer and early autumn. The species diversity of Collembola increased at the final stages of utilizing garbage and was maximal at the intermediate ones.
Okulova N.M., Balakirev A.E., Orlov V.N.
Skulls in 504 one-year-old individuals of the common shrew, Sorex araneus, representing seven chromosomal races (Moscow, Lepel, Manturovo, Yagri, Tomsk, and Nerusa) were examined using 24 dimensions and 15 indices. Races were found to differ in a number of dimensions and proportions of skull. Each race has its own morphological appearance. The cluster analysis of craniometrical data showed that the Tomsk race was separated from other ones. The factor analysis allowed one to determine the main trend of craniometrical variability in S. araneus chromosomal races - alteration of general skull dimensions and dental rows or their parts. Diversity of the species is determined by the variation of characters related to the length of dental rows and width of mouth cavity.
The influence of temperature and permanent illumination on the development and growth of brown frog tadpoles from birth to end of metamorphosis was studied. Different variants for regimes of temperature/illumination (°C/lx): 21/0, 21/100, 21/2500, 25/0, 25/100, and 25/2500) were used. The increase of temperature up to 25°C accelerated the development of tadpoles, but the higher illumination (in the 0, 100, 2500 lx order) increased their sizes. The mortality of tadpoles before the beginning of metamorphosis was higher in the 25/0 variant. Large year’s brood appeared at the 21°C temperature and 100 and 2500 lx illumination. The differences in the influence of temperature and light on the development of tadpoles appear to be related to effects of these parameters on the activity of hormonal processes.
The data related to the expansion of the red deer range to the north-east in Yakutia are considered. Since the 20
Lyapkov S.M., Kornilova M.B., Severtsov A.S.
Based on the long-term stationary studies of a Rana temporaria population, the differences in the body length and other morphometric characters between amplectant and non-amplectant males collected in breeding ponds were not revealed. The large males gained a selective advantage only in conditions of the high abundance of males in the breeding ponds or when they outnumbered females. The larger males (as compared to smaller ones) mated with larger females and produced more offspring. In both sexes, the essential differences in the body length and morphometric characters were revealed between frogs in the breeding ponds and those collected outside these ponds. Therefore, the differences between sexes are due to not only to a male reproductive success but also due to the competition between processes of growth and preparation for reproduction in males and females. The larger size in adult Rana temporaria females is not the result of a low efficiency of sexual selection for larger body size, but it results from a high efficiency of natural selection for raising the fecundity of females.
The general regularities and characteristic traits of the structure and functioning of stomach in ruminant animals were studied using macromorphological and electron microscopic methods. These regularities revealed the presence of the gastrointestinal type of digestion in the animals investigated. The peculiarities revealed reflect specific dietary specialization of each species of animals related to ecological conditions of existence.
Zhil’tsova L.A., Cherchesova S.K.
A new nymph of Isoperla bithynica is described and illustrated. Supplementary data on the distribution of I. bithynica in the Caucasus are given.
Phylogenetic relationships in the families Rhynchitidae and Attelabidae were reconstructed. The main synapomorphies were revealed. The advanced morphological characteristics were determined in different groups of the families studied. The family Attelabidae forms two large branches. The most advanced is the supertribe Rhynchititae, the representatives of which could adapt not only to the development of various parts of a plant, but also to rolling of tubes. This supertribe consists of eight well-detached tribes. These tribes form three groups: Auletini and Minurini; Cesauletini, Eugnamptini, and Isotheini; Rhynchitini and Byctiscini.
The rate and a sequence of food movement over the digestive tract was studied in nine adult rabbits with chronic cecal fistula using solid markers - small fragments of colored plastic film. The fermentation of the main food mass in cecum was found to take place during 25-39 hours. Green food fully evacuated from the digestive tract during 60 hours, hay and grain, 93 and 111 hours, respectively. When the three-component ration was used, grain and roots were delayed in prostomach; hay, in cecum.
Zerova M.D., Seregina L. Ya., Stoyanova A.
Exopristoides Bouček is regarded as a valid genus which is close to Exopristoides Ruschka but differs in the structure of antennae, abdominal tergites, and scutellum (with frenal grove). The description of Exopristoides hypecoi Zerova et Stojanova and redescription of Exopristoides dentatus Bčk. are given.
Nazarova G.G., Evsikov V.I.
The sex proportion in the litter of water voles was found to depend on the nutritional status of pregnant females. The dynamics of body mass in pregnant females followed an exponent equation. An average deviation of weight of an individual body (measured every 3-5 days during pregnancy) from the expected value was used as an indicator of the pregnant female’s condition. The index given positively correlated (r = 0.74) with the weight gain (8%) in post partum females. The dynamics of accumulating body metabolic resources during pregnancy were related to the litter size at birth. The greatest energy resources were observed in females of medium prolificacy. In females with a lower weight gain during pregnancy than the expected value, the sex proportion in the litter was male-biased and inversely correlated with its size. The same relation was between the sex proportion at birth and dynamics of body weights in pregnant females during the first ten days after mating. The role of embryo mortality as a mechanism controlling sex proportion is discussed.
Varshav E.V., Chernova N.M.
Исследовали трофическую активность Protaphorura cancellata и Orthonychiurus stachianus методами прямого наблюдения в лабораторных культурах. Обнаружено, что в короткие межлиночные периоды происходит резкий подъем и быстрый спад пищевой деятельности ногохвосток. При удлинении сроков линьки эти циклы повторяются неоднократно. В период непрерывного питания задний отдел кишечника заполняется ритмически. Скорость выделения при температуре 20°C варьирует от 9 до 20 экскрементов за 1 ч в зависимости от характера пищи и индивидуальных особенностей ногохвостки.
Sheremet’ev I.S., Sal’kina G.P., Bogachev A.S.
The variation of craniometric characteristics in the sika, Cervus nippon hortulorum Swinhoe 1864, from Primorye was studied. The age-sex variation and partly geographic variation in this animal over the Primorye territory is similar to the variation of its body size and mass. The comparison of different groups has not revealed significant differences between territorially separated natural populations. Individuals of park populations differ essentially from wild ones only by a single craniometric parameter, which cannot be a determining one for their differentiation. The level of differences between most of populations is not high in order to determine boundaries between them.