The age (in late postnatal ontogenesis) and seasonal variability of the brain mass of red voles (Clethrionomys rutilus Pall.) from different seasonal generations of a natural population from western Siberia are considered. Specific features of brain growth in red voles of early and late broods have been established. The growth of the brain of early broods involved in reproduction ends at the age of 1.5-2 months, in animals of late broods that do not mature in the year of their birth it terminates at the age of 10-11 months. The results obtained indicate the existence of an autumn-winter regression of the brain mass that occurs at the organismic level.
Abaturov B.D., Kazmin V.D., Dzhapova R.R., Ayusheva E. Ch., Dzhapova V.V., Nokhaeva D.V., Kolesnikov M.P., Minoranskiy V.A., Kuznetsov Yu. E.
The food of free-grazing Bactrian camels in a forb-grass steppe pasture, including anthropogenic disturbed areas with dominance of ruderal annuals, is investigated. The composition of consumed plants is identified using a microhistological analysis of the feces, the digestibility coefficient based on inert (indigestible) silicon contained both in the diet and feces, the quantity of the forage consumed based on the mass of the feces and the digestibility coefficient, the energy balance based on interrelations between the actual consumption and the existing requirement norms of camels and wild ungulate in energy. In spring, camels mainly consumed graminoids (Stipa sp. sp. и Festuca valesiaca), switching to forbs, largely ruderal annuals, in summer and autumn. The forage digestibility is low in spring (56%), increasing to 69-70% in summer and autumn. Low daily consumption rates of dry forage mass in winter and spring (8-9 kg) is changed to high in summer and autumn (20-26 kg), this reflecting the animals’ winter hypophagy. The amount of energy received during the warm season (1.2-1.8 MJ/kgW0.75) considerably exceeds the requirements, this explaining the ability of camels to accumulate a safety store of fat in the humps.
Nechaeva A.V., Beme I.R., Belokon M.M., Belokon Yu. S., Sarychev E.I.
We have identified the main genetic characteristics of the Kamchatka-Chukotka gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) population using nine nuclear microsatellite loci. Eight loci are polymorphic, with two to 15 alleles per locus. The number of alleles per locus averages 4.44. The values of expected heterozygosity lie within 0.081-0.888, those of observed one, 0.085-0.781. These levels of heterozygosity are comparable. The fixation index value (0.018±0.037) indicates a genotypic equilibrium and makes it possible to suggest that the study population in its current size is genetically sufficient and that there is no inbreeding. Our data have been compared with world populations. As a result, we can state that the population we deal with, along with the Alaskan population, comprises most of the genetic diversity of the species. The selected and tested nuclear microsatellite loci (NVH fr34, NVH fp13, NVH fp46-1, NVH fp54, NVH fp79-4, NVH fp82-2, NVH fp89, NVH fp92-1) have been determined as being suitable for both individual identification and certification of birds in captivity, as well as for programs of wild population genetic monitoring.
The results of long-term studies (1986-1990 and 1994-2016) on the breeding biology of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca Pall.) in sub-taiga forests of the southeastern part of western Siberia were analyzed. Data were collected in the surroundings of Tomsk (56°28’ N, 84°54’ E), with aspen-birch forests dominating. The density of nest-boxes amounted to 107 per 10 ha. In the study area, 1724 nests were examined, 1523 eggs measured, 1169 males and 1562 females caught, and 7054 nestlings ringed. The local survival rate of birds ringed as adults was 42% for males and 35% for females, the return rate (direct data) amounted to 28.4% and 26.0%, respectively, the recruitment rate for nestlings (both sexes in total) to 2.4%. The nest-boxes occupation rate (90.5%) and the population density (10.1 pairs per ha) were significantly higher than in Europe with similar densities of nest-boxes. The mean long-term median of an egg-laying date was May 25 (May 19-31.5). No certain long-term trend in the timing of reproduction was detected. The mean clutch size - 6.87 ± 0.02 eggs, the mean volume of eggs - 1671 ± 3 mm3, the reproductive success - 73.6%, the embryonic mortality - 6.7%, the partial brood mortality - 5.7% of the total number of hatched nestlings and 6.3% in successful nests. The mean number of fledglings for a successful attempt and a breeding attempt were 6.09 ± 0.04 and 4.99 ± 0.06, respectively. Thus, the study population of pied flycatcher is characterized by high indices of population density, clutch size and eggs, and the success and productivity of reproduction. This allows us to consider the reproduction conditions for the pied flycatcher in small-leaved forests of the sub-taiga belt in the southeastern part of western Siberia as optimal.
Ryabinin N.A., Wu Dong-Hui
A brief review of the Megeremaeus species of the world fauna is given, the synonymy of Ctenobelba (Aokibelba) rameus (Wen et Zhao 1993) comb. n. = C. (A.) polysetosa (Aoki et Yamamoto 2000) syn. n. is established. A description of the new species Megeremaeus sikhotealinus sp.n., found in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, is provided. The trichobothria in the new species are slightly expanded in the distal third, placed on a long stalk and covered with small setulae. Interlamellar setae are barbed, blunt at the end and half as long as trichobothria. The translamellar ridge in the lower basal part is well-developed, there is a thin ridge connecting the cusps of lamellae together and to the ends of the tutoria. Notogastral setae are covered with sparse hairs, many of them reaching or exceeding the bases of the following posterior setae. There are 2 pairs of anal setae. The discidium is pointed. Accessory seta d on genua I-III is blunt, slightly expanded in the middle part and covered with small setulae.
Mikhailov Yu. E.
120 years ago G.G. Jacobson described two species of leaf beetles from the southern Urals that until recently remained little-known. Chrysolina roddi, previously known only from the foothills of the southern Urals, the low Zhiguli Mountains and the limestone cliffs on the Don River, is recorded from the alpine tundra of the Iremel Massif. The host plant of Ch. roddi in the alpine belt is the small alpine lovage, Pachypleurum simplex (Ligusticum mutellinoides), family Apiaceae. Two species of the subgenus Crositops (Ch. roddi and Ch. kabaki) are presently to be regarded as foothill to alpine taxa. The distribution of Ch. poretzkyi, described from the low-montane part of Bashkortostan, also shows a foothill to alpine disjunction. High mountain populations of Ch. poretzkyi are described as a new subspecies Ch. (Arctolina) poretzkyi olschwangi Mikhailov subsp.n. Revision of the type which has long been considered as being lost confirms the assignment of Ch. poretzkyi to the subgenus Arctolina, in disagreement with its previous placement in the subgenus Pleurosticha. Within Arctolina, the identity of Ch. tundralis and its differences from Ch. poretzkyi are discussed.
Ozerov A.L., Krivosheina M.G.
All three species of the fly genus Scatomyza Fallen known from Russia are revised for the first time. A diagnosis of the genus, descriptions of the species and a key for their identification are given. The species S. amplipennis (Portschinsky 1887) appears to have been recorded from eastern Siberia by mistake, actually being absent from the territory of Russia. Data on the distribution of each species are summarized and mapped.
An overview of published and new information on the collembolan fauna and assemblage structure in the polar desert zone is presented. Up to now, 71 springtail species from 37 genera and 11 families have reliably been registered within the zone. 11 species have been added to the previously known fauna of the Franz Josef Land, while the very north of Novaya Zemlya has been surveyed for the first time. Even the much better known fauna of the Bolshevik Island (Severnaya Zemlya) has been enriched by 3 species. The known species richness of springtails of the Ellef Ringnes Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is also increased from 8 to 13 species. Most genera in each of the study regions of the polar desert zone include 1, more rarely 2 species, with Folsomia and Hypogastrura being the only exceptions. Species with circumpolar distribution patterns account for more than 60% of the total list, but only 10 species are common to all three provinces. This obviously indicates a certain regional specificity. Apart from this, the faunas of different provinces (and regions within a certain province) differ markedly in the proportion of species with more southern distribution patterns. Nevertheless, the collembolan assemblages in all three provinces of the polar desert zone are rather similar at the structural level, this being a direct consequence of the general depletion of the complexes against the background of a high general abundance and a weakened habitat restriction of mass species.
The structure of and long-term fluctuations in the wintering mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population were studied from 1985 until 2016 in Moscow City. The number of wintering mallards was counted annually on the same day at all ice-free ponds and rivers of Moscow. The total winter population of mallards increased 1.6-3.3 times compared to the summer one. A long-term increase continued from 1985 (17.2 thousand) to 1990 (27.9 thousand birds). The size was reduced to 7.5 thousand by 1998, remained low until 2002-2003, but grew in 2015 to 29.7 thousand. The freezing season has decreased from 132 to 104.5 days (Z = 3.8, p = 0.0001, n = 32) during the study period. At the same time, the average air temperatures of November and December have increased significantly. We divided the total number of birds into riverine and interurban local groups that were analyzed separately. The size of the interurban group correlates with the duration of the freezing season (r = -0.47, p = 0.006, n = 32), while that of the riverine group with the average (r = 0.41, p = 0.02, n = 32) and minimum (r = 0.54, p = 0.001, n = 32) winter temperatures. The proportion of mallards that inhabit Moscow Zoo changed in the opposite direction compared to the size of the interurban group (r = -0.83, p0.01, n = 32). The size of the interurban wintering group correlates with purchasing power (r = 0.44, p = 0.012, n = 31) from 1985 until 2015. This latter correlation reflects citizens’ growing welfare. The rapid size growth of the wintering interurban group indicates the advantages of city colonization because of a milder climate, additional food sources and the lack of permanent human persecution.
Grooming was studied in black-and-white (Varecia variegata variegata Kerr 1792) and red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra Geoffroy 1812) in zoos. Allogrooming was more evenly distributed over time than autogrooming. Social grooming in “female-male” dyads was registered most frequently. Allogrooming among siblings and “mother-son” pairs was significantly more frequent than between unrelated animals. The dominant individual had no advantage in getting grooming from other members of the group.
ЧЕСУНОВ А.В., ЦЕТЛИН А.Б.