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The previously unknown larva of Protaetia famelica is described and illustrated. The larva of P. famelica is similar to that of P. brevitarsis by the number of posterior epicranial setae and the presence of anterior frontal setae, but differs from it by the chaetotaxy of the head capsule, the epipharynx structure, and the number and positions of spinules on the anal sternite. An original key to the known larvae of the genus Protaetia in the Russian Far East fauna is given.
Krivosheina N.P., Morozov N.S., Khudyakov V.V.
The first study on the composition of dipterans inhabiting Fieldfare nests in a big city has been conducted, based on material collected soon after the nestlings fledge. Larvae of 21 species belonging to 14 families have been found there, including saprophages, necrophages and predators (Scatopsidae, Ceratopogonidae, Phoridae, Chloropidae, Anthomyiidae etc.), as well as Protocalliphora azurea (Fallén 1816) (Calliphoridae) and Neottiophilum praeustum (Meigen 1826) (Neottiophilidae) known as blood-sucking ectoparasites of nestlings. Larvae of P. azurea (up to 121 per nest) have been yielded both in early (April-May) and late (May-June) nests. Larvae of N. praeustum (up to 299 per nest) have been recorded in late nests only. In late nests, the two species occur both separately and jointly in one nest, with N. praeustum dominating numerically. The seasonal differences in the development of these two parasitic species account for their high abundance in that ephemeral habitat. Larvae of Trypocalliphora braueri (Hendel 1901), a subcutaneous parasite of nestlings of many bird species, have not been found in the Fieldfare nests. A key to the larvae of all three fly species parasitizing nestlings in the European part of Russia is given.
Sirotkin M.B., Korenberg E.I.
An analytical literature review of the effects of abiotic factors on the different developmental stages of the tick species Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus is conducted. These widespread species are concluded to generally be well-adapted to a possible variation gradient of the factors most important for their development, such as temperature and humidity, as well as other environmental conditions. Their variations usually do not significantly affect the mortality of mites in different “passive” phases of the development cycle. However, the number of generations of both species can vary if these factors influence that of full-fed diapausing individuals.
The study was conducted: in 1987-1988 and 2008 on Talan Island (59°20'N, 146°05'E), the Sea of Okhotsk; in 2005 and 2011 on Bear Island (74°23'N, 19°02'E), Svalbard; and in 2009 on Saint Jonah Island (56°24'N, 143°23'E), the Sea of Okhotsk. Sea birds demonstrated interest to some small objects that concerned neither their life nor reproduction. To study this feature in natural conditions, we performed 64 experiments with Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella), 47 with Little Auks (Alle alle), 15 experiments with other alcids, and one with a representative of Procellariiforms, the Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). Birds paid extra attention to small objects that stood out against the natural background. Birds tried to investigate these objects in visual and tactile ways. This feature was more prominent in such highly social seabirds as Little Auks and Crested Auklets. Crested Auklets definitely preferred white or yellow objects. Reactions to orange or green objects were considerable as well. Birds preferred brighter objects even if they were of an unusual colour. Brighter objects stimulated auklet responses to nearby less bright objects. More complicated objects were more preferred than simple ones. Little Auks in the experiments with a full range of colours in similar objects definitely preferred white ones. In the experiments with similar objects of various colours but white, auks first manipulated with the nearest object of any colour. Little Auks tried to touch and manipulate with objects, but paid less attention to their colour and shape than Crested Auklets did. Objects artificially covered with substances with a heavy odour or a spicy taste were not an obstacle to Crested Auklets if they wanted to manipulate with those objects. Little Auks ceased attempts at manipulating with objects smelling menthol.
The Slavonian Grebe is one of the least studied species of the Crimean ornithofauna, with reliable information concerning its stays and status obtained only at the end of the 20th to early 21st century. All available data, both our own and published, are analyzed for the period 1986 to 2017. Based on modern information, in Crimea this is a rare wintering and migratory species (13 records for the past 60 years) whose stays in the region cover a considerable part of the year, lasting from the end of the summer until late spring. Wintering mainly occurs in the sea area off the southern coast: most records are in January and February while the probable time of wintering is from the end of November until early April. During the autumn migration, from mid-August to early September, the Slavonian Grebe is registered from water bodies in the northern parts of Crimea, whereas during the spring one, from the 20th of April until the 10th of May, at the sea coast and on inner water bodies of Crimea’s southern part.
Oleinichenko V. Yu., Kalinin A.A., Kouptsov A.V., Aleksandrov D. Yu., Demidova T.B.
The resident population density and the numbers of non-resident common shrew (Sorex araneus), Laxmann’s shrew (S. caecutiens) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were estimated using the mark-recapture method on an experimental forest plot (10 lines of 50 live-traps per line, the total habitat area 20 ha) with 8 repetitions during 3 years. The distribution of residents of all species was random across both entire plot and each particular trapping line. The accuracy of estimating the density and non-resident activity depends on line length, lines containing 100 or 200 traps thereby satisfactorily (Cv≈30%) or well (Cv≈20%) characterize the whole area of observation, respectively. Direct population density measurements correspond to data estimated for individual lines.
Emelianova O.R., Sivitskaya N.A., Kitaycev A.A., Tihonova N.A., Panyutina A.A.
The Chiroptera is the only order of mammals whose representatives have acquired flapping flight. Consequently, their musculoskeletal system is significantly reorganized, and the four-legged locomotion is fundamentally different from that of typical mammals. To date, the largest amount of data on bat terrestrial locomotion concerns those species for which this type of movement has become an essential component of foraging behavior. Quadrupedal locomotion of other bats remains virtually unstudied. In this paper, we present the result of an experimental analysis of four-legged terrestrial locomotion of five species of vespertilionid bats. The study is based on a combination of two methods: 1) high-speed video recording from two angles, and 2) tracks and traces analysis. Temporal, metric and speed parameters of locomotion in different species are estimated, and the dependence of these characteristics on each other is shown. Such parameters have been studied for bats for the first time. The pattern of movement of the limbs is found to be diagonally symmetric, but contains a large number of deviations that are not characteristic of quadrupedal vertebrates.
The diet of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) was estimated in the territory of the southern taiga subzone, the Central Forest Nature Reserve and its surrounding protection zone serving as an example. Based on an analysis of 474 scats, a list of the most commonly consumed food items and food groups was established, with their shares, nutritional value and importance in the total diet of the species determined. The basic techniques for processing the analysis data, widely used in foreign studies, are presented. There were 26 food items revealed, including 18 plant (FO = 97.9%) and 8 animal ones (9.1%). Correction factors were used for each diet item. Food habits were considered separately for the spring, summer, summer-autumn and autumn seasons. The frequency of scat occurrence per 10 km averaged 1.30. The most important in the bears’ diet were apples (EDEC = 31.1%), hazelnuts (19.1%), oats (12.5%), blueberries (6.8%) and forbs (4.3%). Mammal food had a certain value (EDEC = 11.1%), but mostly in the spring season. The width of the trophic niche decreased from spring to autumn. The diet composition varied greatly throughout the year, except for a hyperphagia period which included summer and autumn. The territory of a moderately disturbed protection zone was more attractive to bears than the intact area of the reserve. Scat analysis in the study area as a whole adequately reflects the basic preferences of the species, but underestimates the values of individual food groups, primarily insects, overestimates the value of apples and poorly characterizes the feeding habits in the first half of the year.
Ermolaev I.V., Yefremova Z.A., Domrachev T.B.
The species structure of parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) of the invasive lime leafminer, Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata 1963) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), was revisited ten years after the latest survey. The work was carried out in 2015 in three previously selected test plots within the city of Izhevsk. An extremely high (61.7 to 89%) survival rate of the miner was revealed, the roles played by the parasitoid complex in the mortality of the miner being negligible (from 0.6 to 1.6%). A slight transformation in the structure of dominant species in the complex of parasitoids was noted, being reflected in a decrease and interchange of the dominants. The species structure of the miner’s parasitiods taken from 22 human settlements in Udmurtia was studied in 2016 as well. Five new parasitoids of the lime leafminer, Ph. issikii, were yielded, such as Pnigalio pectinicornis (Linnaeus 1758), Sympiesis acalle Walker 1848, Chrysocharis amanus Walker 1839, Ch. pentheus Walker 1839 and Ch. polyzo Walker 1839. Two species of parasitoids of Ph. issikii were recognized as new to Udmurtia: Pnigalio agraules (Walker 1839) and Pediobius saulius (Walker 1839).
A nest of the Chinese bush warbler (Tribura tacsanowskia) has been found and monitored in the Amur region for the first time. This is a poorly-studied species distributed in southeastern Siberia, the Russian Far East, and the adjoining areas of Mongolia and China. Only seven nests of this species were found earlier, all of them in Transbaikalia. Descriptions of those findings are given, including the habitat, the location and structure of nests, the egg clutch and downy chick, the behavior of adult birds at their nest. The time contributions of the male and female spent in per cent in the nest, as well as to chick feeding and the ejection of chicks’ litter pellets have been calculated for the first time. The main parameters of nesting life have been revealed: daytime and nocturnal activity cycles of adult birds in the nest, and daily graphs of nestling feeding hours. Observations of adult activity at the nesting site in the period of feeding the nestlings in and after their release from the nest, as well as some other details of Chinese bush warbler behavior and nesting are presented.