Klenova A.V., Komarova V.A.
Vocal plasticity under social environment changes is well-known for passerine birds that possess vocal learning, but it has remained almost unstudied for other species. In present paper we studied the effect of social environment (the presence of conspecifics, a pair-mate and a vocal duel), breeding season period and individuality on the acoustic variables and occurrence of self-advertising calls (trumpet calls) in crested auklet males. This species is a planktivorous seabird that breeds in dense colonies and reveals complex social behaviour on the colony surface. We collected data in 2008–2010 and 2015 on the Talan Island, Sea of Okhotsk; in total we used 1047 calls from 25 individually marked and 62 unmarked males. We found that the majority of males most often emit self-advertising calls when a pair-mate is absent, but other conspecifics are present; most rarely they emit self-advertising calls when a pair-mate is present, but other conspecifics are absent. However, there are some individual differences in those preferences. We suggest that, in the presence of a pair-mate, auklets prefer to use duet displays to signal their social status and pair-mate “occupation”. We also found that the effect of social environment and breeding period on all acoustic variables measured is weaker than the effect of individuality. However, some of the trumpet call variables (mainly the duration of some syllables inside the trumpet call) changed significantly under the influence of the study factors. Thus, crested auklets can slightly change the acoustic variables of their calls depending on the social environment, but keep the overall signature of their calls stable to make a vocal individual recognition possible during the entire breeding season.
Gural-Sverlova N.V., Gural R.I.
In the periods from 1998 to 2004 and from 2015 to 2017, the quantitative distribution of phenotypes in 6 large urban colonies of Cepaea hortensis was investigated in the city of Lviv, western Ukraine. A significant temporal stability of such features of polymorphic structure as the percentage of molluscs with a banded and monochrome white shell and the distribution pattern of the phenotypes and types of band fusion among specimens with fused bands is shown. After a ten-year break in research at 4 sites out of 10, a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of specimens with a banded shell was recorded, which may be the result of climatic selection. At the same time, specific features of polymorphic structure at some sites were identified, which could be taken as the initial stages of genetic differentiation of C. hortensis colonies in urban conditions.
Information on the distribution in the Urals of three rotifer genera, Anuraeopsis, Brachionus and Notholca, family Brachionidae, is summarized based on the author’s research and an analysis of literature sources. Data on their localities, biology and quantitative development in the Urals’ waters are presented. The genus Brachionus is represented by a few records only, mainly in the southern regions of the Urals in shallow, frequently mineralized, eutrophicated lakes. The genus Notholca is not widely distributed and is relatively rare in the study regions of the Urals, its representatives never reaching great abundance levels. According to biological properties, these rofifers are predominantly cryobionts which prefer oligotrophic waters.
Gagarin V.G., Tu Nguyen Dinh
Illustrated descriptions of the two new nematode species found in artificial reservoirs for strimp cultivation are given: Pseudolella tenuis sp. n. and Paracomesomaleptum sp. n. The former is morphologically close to P. bengalensis (Timm 1957) and Tchesunov 1978, but differs from P. bengalensis by the shorter body, the comparatively longer pharynx, the comparatively shorter and less slender tail, the longer stoma, the shorter ventral branch of the amphidial fovea, and the shorter spicules and cephalic setae. It differs from P. capera by the shorter cephalic setae, the wider labial region, the longer ventral branch of the amphidial fovea, and the longer spicules. Paracomesomaleptum sp. n. is morphologically close to P. susannae Semprucci 2015 and P. minor Gagarin et Nguyen Dinh Tu 2014. From the former species it differs by the shorter and thicker body, the shorter cephalic and subcephalic setae, and the less numerous precloacal supplements in the male. This new species differs from P. minor by the less slender tail, the shorter cephalic and outer labial setae, the presence of subcephalic setae, and the longer spicules.
The structure of the lynx activity centre at large ungulate prey was investigated in 1975–2015 in the central Sikhote-Alin Mountains using the GPS-Glonass tracking techniques and other tools. The centre’s zonal structure near the prey as the main stimulus to organize the predator’s passages includes clusters of trajectories, of groups of beds, of places of prey masking and other tracks. The structure is formed based on behavioural stereotypes of the distribution of the predator’s spatial activity. In each of the clusters of passages, a certain pattern of behaviour prevails. The patterns are distinguished on the basis of motivation displays (beds, scent marks and other traces) and trajectory forms. The properties of orientation are determined, based on the directions (vectors) of movement in an environment of reference points and marks. A given stereotype requiring distant lynx passages is not directly related to the particular conditions of a hunt. Evolutionarily, this behaviour might have developed in the conditions when prey was small or medium-sized and basically faced a risk of being accessed by bird scavengers.
Nikulina T.V., Martynov V.V.
The life cycle, host-plants, distribution and harmfulness of Exechesops foliatus Frieser 1995 in the European part of its range have been studied. The larvae of this species feed on and develop in the seeds of Acer tataricum and A. ginnala. One generation is developed per year. Adult beetles are active from early June to mid-August. Oviposition continues during late June to early July. Clutches with one egg (75%) dominate, those with two eggs average 20%, while those with three eggs amount to not more than 5%. Larvae develop from the end of June to the middle of August; larvae of the older age hibernate; pupation begins in May next year. Seed damage ranges from 1.5 to 97.0%. No parasites have been found, but the infestation rate of larvae by mites of the genus Pyemotes reaches 25%. The intensity of infestation ranges from one to 15 mites per larva.
ГОРБУНОВ О.Г., ЕФЕТОВ К.А.
Представлен обзор рода Bembecia Hübner 1819 [“1816”] Крымского полуострова. Предложены ключи для определения видов как по внешним признакам, так и по структуре генитальных аппаратов самцов и самок. Описан новый вид: Bembecia crimeana sp. n. Типовая серия была собрана с помощью искусственных половых аттрактантов. Самка и особенности биологии нового вида остаются неизвестными. Все обнаруженные крымские виды рода проиллюстрированы. Распространение каждого вида в Крыму представлено в виде карты.
На основе обширного нового материала показано, что восточносредиземноморские кивсяки-пахиюлины представлены в фауне Израиля по меньшей мере тремя родами и восемью видами. Все они включены в определительную таблицу и снабжены диагнозами и иллюстрациями. Два рода, Parapachyiulus and Syrioiulus, содержат по два вида: Parapachyiuluskeziv sp. n., P. hoffmani Golovatch et Wytwer 2009, Syrioiulus aharonii (Verhoeff 1914) и S. posthirsutus (Verhoeff 1923), а род Amblyiulus включает четыре вида: A. barroisi (Porat 1893) (= Pachyiulus (Dolichoiulus) genezarethanus Verhoeff 1923, syn. n.) (типовой вид),A. cf. festae (Silvestri 1895), ?A.domesticus (Attems 1910) и A. cedrophilus (Attems 1910), при этом последний таксон – новый для фауны Израиля.
ЕРМИЛОВ С.Г., СТАРИ Й.
Предложен и описан новый подрод панцирных клещей, Niloppia (Hanoiella) subgen. n. (Oribatida, Oppiidae, Oppiinae) с типовым видом Niloppia (Hanoiella) transversa sp. n., собранным из мхов сада в г. Ханой (северный Вьетнам). От номинативного подрода отличается расположением нотогастральных щетинок da, lm, la, позицией la, локализацией ламеллярных щетинок, морфологией переднего края нотогастра и соотношением размеров тела. Представлен обновленный диагноз рода Niloppia Balogh 1983 и предложены диагнозы для подродов Niloppia (Niloppia) и Niloppia (Hanoiella).