Omelko M.M., Omelko N.V.
A new genus and species, Vientiana gen. n. with V. patricki sp. n., is described from the central part of Laos. The new genus represents a separate lineage in the subfamily Anacampsinae. It is somewhat related to the genus Battaristis Meyrick, as the male genitalia of the Far Eastern species B. majuscula M. Omelko et N. Omelko and V. patricki sp. n. have a similar plate-shaped anellus. The genus Semophylax Meyrick has hitherto comprised only two species: S. apicepuncta (Busck), known from the South of North America and northern South America, and S. verecunda (M. Omelko) (nomen correctum!), described from Vietnam from a single male. A new species, S. crassiuscula sp. n., is described from southern Laos and the previously unknown female of S. verecunda is documented and illustrated, based on material of both sexes collected in central Laos.
Goltsman M.E., Kruchenkova E.P., Sushko E.D., Doronina L.O.
We develop a spatially explicit individual-based model which imitates the population dynamics of the Arctic fox on Mednyi Island. In the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation, the Mednyi Arctic fox is listed as an endangered species. The developed model is based on data collected during 19 years of fieldwork. Annual marking of cubs in the study area allowed us to identify up to 80% of animals individually and to collect their life-history data. As a result, we identify the mortality rates of males and females of all age groups, the probabilities of breeding, litter sizes, the sex ratios of animals in different age classes, social structures, dispersal distances, and the patterns of making decisions in the selection of social partners and habitat patches. The model is spatially explicit, i.e., the heterogeneity of the habitat patches is defined in an explicit form. The model works with a time step of one year. In simulations, such demographic parameters as population dynamics, population age structure, sex ratio in different age classes, and the structure and size of families conformed to the empirical data. An analysis of the model sensitivity to the variations of mortality rates in different age groups showed that the sensitivity to the shift of cubs’ mortality is much higher compared to adults of all age classes. Through increasing the cub mortality rate to 95% over a period of one to five years, we simulated the effect of otodectic mange epizootic which was observed in the real population of Mednyi Arctic fox. The population recovery time after the end of the impact in the simulation was significantly longer compared to field data. We suggest that in reality, with a low population size, the productivity of the population increases, and the mortality of cubs may decrease. This feedback which accelerates population recovery has not yet been introduced into the model.
Kazankova I.I., Gaysky P.V., Kotolupova A.A.
At the southern and southwestern coasts of Crimea, in the conditions of an expressed vertical temperature stratification of the waters during the warm season, the growth rate of juvenile Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels decreased with water depth. In June and July, this drop was the maximum and reached 2–3 times. In August–October and February–April, the growth rate of mussels was steady and did not change with water depth. From November to February, the growth rate of mussels at the average depth of 12 m was 30% higher than both near the surface (0.5–2 m) and at a greater depth (22 m). During all seasons, the ratio of the growth rates of brown to blue mussels increased with depth from 0.8 (0.5–2 m) to 1.18 (22 m). This process is related to neither water temperature nor oxygen regime and is observed across all seasons of the year. It might be determined instead by the intensity and spectral composition of sunlight changing with depth.
Gagarin V.G., Naumova T.V.
Illustrated descriptions of two new species of nematodes found in the surface bottom sediment of Lake Baikal are given. Paramononchus rarus sp. n. is morphologically close to P. alimovi Tsalolikhin 1990, but has a thicker body, a comparatively short and less slender tail, a different position of the vulva and a larger oral cavity. Paradorylaimus securus sp. n. is morphologically close to P. jankowskyi (Tsalolikhin 1977) and P. vacillans Loof 1996, but differs from both by a shorter and less slender tail in females, a shorter odontophore and more numerous precloacal supplements and their arrangement.
Zhokhov A.E., Pugacheva M.N., Thi Ha Vo, Kieu Oanh Le Thi, Hai Thanh Nguyen Thi
We surveyed parasites of 4 anemonfish species (Pomacentridae) from near Nha Trang, South China Sea, Vietnam in the years 2016–2017: Amphiprionclarckii (53), A. polymnus (58),A. perideraion (15) and A. frenatus (10). Altogether, these 4 fishes supported 11 parasite species, with 3–8 parasite species per fish species. The survey revealed 2 species of copepods (Hatschekia sp. 1, Hatschekia sp. 2), 6 digeneans (Macvicaria sp. 1, Macvicaria sp. 2, Aponurus piriformis,Aponurus laguncula, Hysterolecitha nahaensis, Bivesicula sp. metacercariae), 2 nematodes (Spirocamallanus istiblenni, Hysterothylacium sp. J4) and 1 acanthocephalan (Echinorhynchus sp.). Hysterolecitha nahaensis and Spirocamallanus istiblenni were the most abundant and prevalent parasites. These parasites reached a prevalence of 64 and 90% with an intensity of infestation of 1–6 and 1‒37, respectively. Two ectoparasite taxa were recovered: Hatschekia sp. 1 (a single specimen found in A. clarckii) and Hatschekia sp. 2. Among them, Hatschekia sp. 2 was the most frequent and abundant species in A. polymnus (prevalence 96.6%, intensity of infestation 0–51).
Gildenkov M. Yu.
The following six new species of the genus Thinodromus Kraatz 1857 close to T. (Amisammus) ripicola (Cameron 1941) and T. (A.) latus Gildenkov 2003 are described: T. (A.) idemus sp. n., T. (A.) leviterus sp. n. and T. (A.) breviterus sp. n. from southeastern China; T. (A.) asperopunctus sp. n. from Sichuan; T. (A.) flavofinesus sp. n. from Hong Kong and T. (A.) tenebrius sp. n. from northern India, Nepal and Bhutan. The lectotype of Trogophloeus ripicola Cameron 1941 is designated.
Okulova N.M., Bogdanov A.S., Baskevich M.I., Orlov V.N., Antonets N.V., Popova Yu. V., Lavrenchenko L.A.
Craniometric features (measurements, indexes) in several species of the genus Sylvaemus (S. sylvaticus, S. flavicollis, S. uralensis from Eastern Europe and some adjacent territories, as well as S. ponticus and S. witherbyi from the Caucasus) have been studied using multivariate statistical analysis. For the first time, craniometric characters of the genus Sylvaemus are considered in relation to the feeding ecology of species. A total of 614 skulls were studied. Based on original material, discriminant keys have been developed using skull measurements. The keys appear to be suitable for the diagnostics of the studied Sylvaemus species, including sibling ones. The largest skulls are shown to be characteristic of S.flavicollis and the smallest ones of S. uralensis. Cluster analysis of absolute measurements of a skull cumulative selection has revealed the greatest isolation of S. flavicollis and a similarity of coexisting, but phylogenetically remote S. ponticus and S. witherbyi. Factor analysis showed that, within the genus Sylvaemus, general sizes are less essential than characters related to food smashing (the length of the lower jaw and rostrum, the width of the occipital part of the skull), possibly also to the thickness of the cutters. Comparative analyses of relative skull measurements (the indexes related to the type of food: a seed folder type or a green folder one) allow us to conclude that the food adaptations to the seed folder type of food in the structure of the skull and teeth increase in the series S. uralensis–S. sylvaticus–S. witherbyi–S. flavicollis–S. ponticus. The cranial evolution in species within the genus Sylvaemus is suggested to have been directed to increased adaptations in the mechanisms in seed cover cleavage and seed processing.
Zharov A.A., Khasanov B.F., Kotov A.A.
The aim of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of biological remains in a certain water body of European Russia, Lake Kendur, Shatura District, Moscow Area selected as an example. We revealed a strong heterogeneity in the composition of subfossil remains in the upper layer of bottom sediments along a transect from the littoral zone to the lake’s center at all three levels of our analysis: algo-zoological, complex zoological and cladoceran ones. We conclude that any remains of different organisms are buried mainly in the zones of their production. The results of our work are important for techniques of palaeozoological analysis. We can infer that choosing the sampling localities in each water body and the necessary number of samples must be determined by the aims of each particular study.
ЗАЙЦЕВ А.А., КОМПАНЦЕВ А.В.
Приведено детальное описание личинки последнего возраста Monomma resinorum Hope 1842 из Индии, включая данные о хетотаксии и строении эндоскелета грудных сегментов. Проведено сравнение с личинками близких родов с целью выявления общих признаков, характерных для группы. По особенностям морфологии личинок предложено вывести мономматид из состава Zopheridae в отдельное семейство Monommatidae stat. rest. В результате обработки оригинальных и литературных данных о морфологии известных личинок Zopheridae sensu Ślipiński, Lawrence 1999 предложено пересмотреть систему семейства, разделив его на три семейства (Monommatidae, Zopheridae и Colydiidae stat. rest.), а также уточнено систематическое положение некоторых спорных таксонов Zopheridae и Colydiidae.