The annual cycles of the skates and wagtails studied during field and experimental observations in the Lower Ob river basin and Yamal Peninsula have a lot of common features. All species show close dates of arrival, nesting, molting, and departure onset, but the timing of post-breading migration and pre-breading molting somewhat differ. The environmental factor that determines the beginning of arrival to the forested tundra and tundras are positive air temperatures. Only yellow wagtails arrive with formed gonads, whereas the other species require additional stimulation by a photoperiod of 24°L : 0D. Reduction of some stages of nesting is possibly an attempt of the boreal populations to increase their reproduction success in the high latitudes. Differences in the annual cycle program are expressed during the post-nesting period. These variations lie in the timing of the onset and duration of post-juvenile molting, the duration of post-juvenile and post-breading molting, in the photoperiodic conditions of molting and in autumn migration. The inherent specific rhythm of migration, combined with environmental conditions along the migration trek, determine the timing of arrival to wintering sites. The threshold values of the photoperiodic intervals of wintering and pre-breading molting in different species correspond to the latitude of hibernation and perhaps determine this latitude.
Klevezal G.A., Chunkov M.M., Omarov K.Z., Shchepotkin D.V.
Lower incisors of ten hamsters from the Khungaz region of Dagestan were studied. One hamster implanted with a temperature data logger successfully survived one winter in natural conditions and its body temperature curve revealed 25 bouts of hypothermia with the body temperature dropping to 9-1 °C, i.e. the period of hibernation. On the surface of the incisors, against a background of very indistinct increments, a zone with more distinct ones was observed. From the apical part of the zone to its basal part, the width of these increments decreased up to very narrow, almost indistinguishable, and then increased. A comparison of the number of increments formed after this zone with the number of days the hamster survived after arousal from hibernation indicated that the zone must have been formed during hibernation. The pattern of variation in increment width in the “zone of hibernation” corresponded to that in the episodes of normothermia during hibernation. A similar “zone of hibernation” was seen on the incisor surface in six of nine specimens trapped in the field in June to early July. The date of their arousal calculated from the number of increments corresponded to the date of arousal of the hamsters in this region, according to field observations. The pattern of hibernation record on the incisors of these hamsters was mainly similar to that in the hamster with the temperature data logger and also demonstrated individual variations. Due to a poor contrast of increments on the incisor surface of these hamsters, it is difficult to use this record of hibernation for calculating the precise data of arousal or for estimating the duration of every episode of normothermia during hibernation. However, it is possible among the animals trapped in spring to early summer to distinguish specimens aroused earlier or aroused later using the position of the “zone of hibernation” on the incisor. It is also possible to estimate the relative duration of periods with short or long episodes of normothermia using the ratio of fragments with different widths of increment in the “zone of hibernation”.
Plasteeva N.A., Klement'ev A.M.
The large mammal fauna of the Cis-Baikal area was studied, based on previously published data from 58 Early, Middle or Late Holocene localities. Since the Early Holocene, the spread of closed forest led to change in the species diversity and distribution of large mammals. Common Late Pleistocene species disappeared from the region at the end of the Pleistocene, although isolated populations of the wild horse, the giant deer and the steppe bison still persisted in western Cis-Baikalia and Transbaikalia. The forest-dwelling species like the Siberian roe-deer, the red deer and the elk became the most abundant ungulates. Faunal data also suggest the presence of the wild boar early in the Boreal period, of the musk deer and the auroch in the Atlantic period. Changes in the distribution of the Mongolian marmot, the Asiatic wild ass and the Mongolian gazelle occurred in the second half of the Subatlantic period. All three latter species suffered a major decrease at the northern range limit. The modern large mammal fauna has become established since the second half of the Late Holocene.
Bykov A.V., Bukhareva O.A.
The results of a 30-year long monitoring of the long-legged buzzard nesting in natural tree-shrub communities in a clay semi-desert of the Trans-Volga region are presented. In such communities, buzzards are shown to nest exclusively in crab-trees or 3-4-meter high common buckthorn growing in polydominant shrublands both in lake depressions and in large depressions on the plain. Since these plant species in plain depressions are subject to strong anthropogenic impact and fail to reach the required height, only polydominant shrubs are suitable for long-legged buzzard nesting and form sufficiently dense thickets in nesting areas. A tiny area of such communities cannot ensure the conservation of the species within the region. The maintenance of the buzzard and other bird species is currently due to the presence of artificial woods. Biodiversity in the Volga-Ural interfluve clay semi-desert primarily depends on the preservation of existing artificial woodlands, as well as on the conservation and restoration of endangered natural tree-shrub ecosystems.
Savitsky V. Yu., Davidian G.E.
The weevil granulosus subgroup of Plinthus is reviewed. Plinthus frivaldszkyi Davidian et Savitsky sp. n. and P. mananauricus Davidian et Savitsky sp. n. from the Caucasus are described. New data on the morphology and geographic distribution of P. granulosus Reitter 1884, P. abdurakhmanovi Davidian 1995 and P. kataevi Davidian 1992, as well as a key to 5 species of the subgroup are presented.
The Yamskie Islands, an archipelago off the coast of Magadan, Russia, are regarded as a Marine Key Bird Area of global importance and since 1982 make part of the “Magadanskiy” Nature Reserve. The first survey of sea bird numbers was conducted there in 1974 and so far these data for the Atykan, Baran and Khatemalyu islands remained the only ones available. On August, 3rd, 2016, full photo surveys of the colonies of sea birds on these islands were carried out. The species list of all three islands includes 6 sea bird species breeding in open nests: the Northern Fulmar, the Pelagic Cormorant, the Slaty-backed Gull, the Black-legged Kittiwake, and the Common and Thick-billed murres. Breeding of further 6 species in hidden nests was confirmed: the Spectacled Guillemot, the Tufted and Horned puffins, the Parakeet Auklet, and the Crested and Least auklets. The total numbers of sea birds nesting on the Atykan, Baran and Hatemalju islands amount to more than 305.9, 103.5 and 102 thousand individuals, respectively. In comparison with the previous counts, the following numbers trends have been noted. A considerable growth in the abundance of the Northern Fulmar on the Atykan and Baran islands, and this species’ expansion to and presently high numbers on the Khatemalyu Island have been observed. The nesting population of the Black-legged Kittiwake has grown on all islands more than twice. The abundance of the Pelagic Cormorant, the rarest species on the archipelago, has grown on the Baran and Khatemalyu islands, both located closer to the mainland, with the first nests having already appeared on the most remote Atykan Island. A growing abundance of the murres is noted only for the Atykan Island, their stable numbers on the small Baran and Khatemalyu islands possibly reflecting the maximum saturation of nesting rocks accessible for the murres.
Data on the distribution, detailed descriptions of two new species, Protoheterokrohnia miranda Kassatkina sp. n., P. fortis Kassatkina sp. n. from the Laptev Sea, are presented. Illustrations are given. A list of and identification keys to the family Tokiokaispadellidae Salvini-Plaven 1986, as well as a diagnosis of Protoheterokrohnia Kassatkina 2016 published earlier are provided.
Potyutko O.M., Udalov A.A.
During the 66 th voyage of RV "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" in August 2016, a number of lagoons at the eastern coast of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago were surveyed in the: Blagopoluchiya, Stepovoy, Oga, Sedov, Tsivolka and Abrosimova bays. Zooperiphyton were found only in the Sedov and Abrosimov bays. The fauna of these bays is diverse and includes 10 species: Oligochaeta (1), Diptera (7), Plecoptera (1) and Amphipoda (1). Their quantitative distribution ranges from the total absence to 10.6-19.8 g/m 2 . Seasonal cohorts are formed there, 80% of which are merohydrobionts (Plecoptera and Chironomidae), and 10% each are neritic amphipods and amphibious Enchytraeidae. The formation of seasonal cohorts is determined by the direction and speed of the wind during the emergence of adult merohydrobionts from island watercourses and reservoirs. It is because of this that the uneven qualitative and quantitative composition of representatives of the class Insecta (Diptera, Plecoptera) can be accounted for.
Markova E.A., Bobretsov A.V., Starikov V.P., Cheprakov M.I., Borodin A.V.
The paper summarizes data on morphotype dental patterns in recent lemmings (Lemmini) and their earliest presumed ancestors as obtained based on an analysis both of existing literature and zoological collections. The criteria for distinguishing the morphotypes are unified and four metrics are proposed to assess 1) the occlusal surface complexity, 2) the regularity of enamel cutting edges, 3) the asymmetry of lingual and buccal prisms, and 4) the degree of cement deposition at reentrant angles. A catalogue of basic, reserve and rare morphotypes is created for Lemmus sibiricus and Myopus schisticolor. The approach developed here is recommended for further research in spatial, temporal, and ontogenetic variations in Lemmini, based on their dental characters.
Ermilov S.G., Hugo-Coetzee E.A., Theron P.D.
A new species of Galumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae) is described from moss (Sphagnum sp.) growing in a seepage area below a permanent spring in South Africa; Galumna sphagni sp. n. is similar to G. baloghi Wallwork 1965, but differs by the larger body, the swollen and entirely barbed heads of bothridial setae, the presence of a striate ornamentation on the genital plates and lateral parts of epimeres I, II, and the Spelling: location of aggenital setae close to the genital plates. An identification key to the species of the subgenus Galumna (Galumna) known from the Ethiopian Region, as well as data on their distribution in South Africa are presented.
НАБОЖЕНКО М.В., ИВАНОВ С.Н.
Описан новый вид жуков-чернотелок Toxicum elvirae sp. n. (Tenebrioninae, Toxicini) из Приморского края России. Для нового вида выделен подрод Mutiloxicum subg. n., который отличается следующими признаками: отсутствием рогов на голове самца (наличием только супраорбитальных выростов и эпистомального бугорка), опушенной стоячими волосками наружной стороной мандибул и сильно выступающими острыми углами переднеспинки. В отличие от остальных видов Toxicum, новый вид питается не полипоровыми древесными грибами, а эпифитными листоватыми фисциоидными лишайниками. Обсуждается таксономическое значение роговых выростов на голове самцов подтрибы Toxicina. Дана определительная таблица для родов этой подтрибы.
Приведен иллюстрированный каталог семейства Ratardidae мировой фауны, включающий 10 видов из трех родов. Новый вид Callosiope elenae Yakovlev sp. n. описан из провинции Лампанг (Таиланд). Установлен новый синоним - Ratarda mora Hering 1925 = Ratarda javanica Roepke 1937 syn. n. Для фауны Таиланда впервые приведен Ratarda excellens (Strand 1917).