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A new species, Melitaea devyatkini sp. n., closely related to M. didymoides is described from southern Mongolia. The fine structure of the egg chorion of the new species is studied and a comparative morphological characteristic of M. didymoides from different parts of its range given.
Benediktov A.A., Storozhenko S. Yu.
The taxonomic status of Dianemobius fascipes (Walker 1869) from Nepal (Kathmandu) and D. nigrofasciatus (Matsumura 1904) from Japan (Akiruno City near Tokyo), Korea (Incheon near Seoul) and Russia (Novosibirsk) is discussed, based on a comparison of acoustic advertisement signals. The sounds of D. nigrofasciatus are described for the first time from the northwesternmost locality of its range in southern Siberia, Russia. According to amplitude-time characteristics, there are no differences between male signals of from Russia, Japan and Korea. However, the signals slightly differ from those of D. fascipes from Nepal. There are no morphological differences between these taxa, with the exception of the color of the hind tibia. Male genitalia are similar and slightly differ in the degree of development of the ectoparamere lobe. Thus we suggest to consider D. fascipes as a polytypic species which includes two subspecies: the nominative, southern D. fascipes fascipes stat. resurr., common in the Oriental Region, and the northern D. fascipes nigrofasciatus stat. resurr., known from the eastern part of the Palearctic Region.
Belkina Е.G., Sorokina S. Yu., Lazebny О.Е., Vedenina V. Yu.
Courtship behavior was studied in three sibling species of the Drosophila virilis group, namely, D. virilis, D. lummei, and D. littoralis. The latter species was represented by two strains, the founders of which had been caught in the habitats of the southern and northern races of D.littoralis, whose status is equivalent to subspecies. Con- and heterospecific tests were analyzed by video-typing. Analyses of conspecific tests of D. virilis and D. lummei revealed no differences in the duration of courtship elements and their latencies. Conversely, a comparison of heterospecific tests ♀ D. virilis + ♂ D. lummei and ♀ D. lummei + ♂ D. virilis showed a strong decrease in the duration of all main courtship elements (touching, licking, and singing), as well as a significant decrease in the percentage of copulation. Comparisons of the con- and heterospecific tests of the northern and southern races of D. littoralis revealed some differences in courtship structure. However, we did not find any obstacles for a successful mating in the heterospecific tests of the northern and southern races of D. littoralis. By contrast, large differences in the structure of the courtship ritual in heterospecific reciprocal tests of D. littoralis + D. virilis and D. littoralis + D. lummei were found. The males of the D. virilis phylad lost their interest to D. littoralis females immediately after the beginning of touching. On the contrary, D. littoralis males demonstrated a complete courtship towards both D. lummei and D. virilis females. At the same time, all heterospecific tests of D. lummei + D. littoralis and D. virilis + D. littoralis were characterized by the lowest percent of copulation.
Khalzov I.A., Mekhanikova I.V., Sitnikova T. Ya.
Ectosymbiotic infusoria were studied for the first time on the cuticular surface of Lake Baikal’s endemic amphipods inhabiting the Frolikha underwater hydrothermal vent. Ciliates of the Palearctic genus Lagenophrys (Peritrichia, Lagenophryidae) were found on five of 11 amphipod species. Among 63 individuals of amphipods that supported infusoria on their surface, 53 belonged to Macropereiopus florii (Dybowsky 1874), one of the most common burrowing pelophilous species. In addition to infusoria, morphologically different ectosymbiotic prokaryotes were revealed using scanning electron microscopy, these being likely to form a specific consortium in the conditions of a hydrothermal vent.
Prokina K.I., Mylnikov A.P.
The species composition and morphology of free-living heterotrophic flagellates from freshwater, brackish, hypersaline and marine habitats of southern Chile were studied. Seventy-seven species and eight forms were found. The greatest number of species was observed in freshwater bodies: in a temporary spring shallow and well-warmed pond, Tierra del Fuego (31 species), and in a sphagnum bog, mainland Chile (29 species). A similarity analysis of the flagellate communities by species composition in different types of habitat showed the dependence of the formation of a community of heterotrophic flagellates on water mineralization. Micrographs and morphological descriptions for 25 species (Hyperamoeba flagellata, Bicosoeca cylindrica, B. exilis, B. lacustris, B. maris, B. vacillans, Paraphysomonas aff. bandaiensis, P. longispina, Anthophysa vegetans, Cercomonas gigantica, Paracercomonas metabolica, Metromonas grandis, M. simplex, Thaumatomastix triangulata, Thaumatomonasseravini, Spongomonas uvella, Histiona aroides, Reclinomonas americana, Percolomonas denhami, Heteronema globulifera, Petalomonas ornata, Distigma senni, Developayella elegans, Amastigomonas griebensis, Kathablepharis remigera) are given.
Tarasov V.V., Korshikov L.V.
A number of tundra wader species in the former Orenburg Province occasionally nesting in the second half of the 19th century were reported by such prominent researchers of the avifauna of that region as E.A. Eversmann, N.A. Zarudny, P.P. Sushkin and some others. In most cases, the scientists based their assumptions on circumstantial evidence alone, for instance summer records of adult birds and migrating broods. Taking into account the specific biology of the species in question, such data could not be regarded sufficient as a proof for the species’ nesting. In the middle of the 20th century, the earlier data were revised and quite justly criticized: This led to all conclusions regarding the nesting of tundra wader species in the region as having been wrong. The matter seemed to be settled. Yet it should be noted that along with circumstantial data on the nesting of northern waders the early researchers had also reported very solid facts like finding nests with clutches of eggs and unflying chicks (including the Red-necked Phalarope and the Little Stint). For certain reasons, those facts were not considered during the revision that followed. Firstly, it was difficult to find an explanation for such outstanding evidence in the middle of the 20th century. Secondly, no new nests of those species were found that could confirm the 19th century researchers having been right. Furthermore, the idea that long-term cycles of climate changes influence the dynamics of bird nesting areas became widely accepted only by the end of the 20th century. Nowadays when this idea has been thoroughly developed, the possibility of the former nesting of some tundra wader species in arid regions does not seem incredible. It seems probable that N.A. Zarudny and P.P. Sushkin had been the last scientists to witness the nesting of tundra wader populations in the Orenburg Region as over time due to the climate warming the waders might have left the region for good. This study was performed in the framework of a state contract with the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Ivanter E.V., Makarov A.M., Yakimova A.E.
A number of special studies were carried out in the territory of the Priladozhsky theriological research center (Karku village, Pitkyaranta District) in 1986–1997. Research was supplemented by periodic visits in 1998–2015. Territorial relations of 541 bank voles (the number of which totaled 2287) were studied using tagging and live traps. Characteristic differences in the spatial groupings of the main age and sex groups were established. Adult (wintering) females lead a sedentary lifestyle occupying individual plots of an average area of 775 m 2 with fluctuations from 200 to 1850 m 2 . Males migrate permanently, being attracted by individual areas of females and representing the most mobile part of the population. No formation of any sort of clear aggregations is detected in males. The territorial behavior of profitables is varied. Members of the spring and summer cohorts live sedentarily within habitats in an area of 240–1100 m 2 (an average of 422) and actively participate in reproduction, while summer and autumn individuals mature and participate in breeding only next spring, being highly mobile and adhering to no certain territory.
Okulova N.M., Bogdanov A.S., Baskevich M.I., Orlov V.N., Popova Yu. V., Antonets N.V., Lavrenchenko L.A.
The intraspecific variability of craniometric characters (absolute measurements, indexes) was studied in the pygmy wood mouse, Sylvaemus uralensis and the yellow-necked mouse, S. flavicollis from a number of localities of Eastern Europe. The East European populations of S. uralensis were compared with the Caucasian ones and of S. flavicollis with conspecific samples from Sweden. A total of 478 skulls of Sylvaemus were measured and analyzed. The results of skull measurements using cluster analysis show that S. uralensis and S. flavicollis are both to be split into two groups, northern and southern, that completely correspond to the intraspecific structure of S. flavicollis as described based on genetic data, but only partly so concerning S. uralensis. The northern and southern groups of both species are distinguished for the first time using discriminant analysis. Indexes (relative skull measurements) related to the character of feeding are discussed. The intraspecific craniometric variability of S. flavicollis is suggested to be related to distinctions in food supply and the ways of getting food, whereas in S. uralensis no relation between the values of the indexes of the chewing device and food features in different parts of its distribution area has been revealed.
This study reviews the available molecular studies on chigger mites (Acari, Trombiculidae). The vast majority of publications focus on sample identifications. Nucleotide sequences of chigger mites as presented in databases have been obtained through research on biodiversity, population structure, mitochondrial gene arrangement, and the phylogeny of mites. In addition, COI sequences of mites deposited in GenBank and BOLDSystem have been analyzed to estimate the usefulness of barcoding in chigger mite systematics. Our results show the division of the sequences into two groups: the first one (Leptotrombidium species) lacks two amino acids, while the second one has them. The variable site matches one of the loops of the COI protein. The current level of knowledge of the nucleotide sequences in chigger mites could lead to misidentifications of samples, if only molecular tools are used alone. Further studies on other species and other genes, especially nuclear ones, are needed.