Different types of adaptation in dragonflies directed to the selection of optimal habitats in the desert zone in the southern part of central Asia were revealed. The most favorable habitats for the development of larval phases are flowing and semi-flowing water bodies of irrigation systems. The life cycles in dragonflies are synchronous with seasonal climatic changes; their reproductive period is restricted to the time of optimal hygrothermal conditions. The time of flying in monovoltine species may be reduced and shifted to spring time
Based on the count performed in May, 2004 over recreational territories in the Dniester region, forty species of breeding birds of six orders were recorded:
Kutyrev I.A., Lamazhapova G.P., Erofeeva L.M., Zhamsaranova S.D.
Age-dependent changes in the mesenteric lymphatic node of Baikal seal were studied. Microanatomical (relative area of structural components) and cytological characteristics of the mesenteric lymphatic node in adolescent (2- and 3-year-old) and adult (older than 4-year-old individuals) seals were assessed. The area of a sheath and trabeculas is shown to increase with age. With age, the area occupied by nodules with light centers also decreased, but that of nodules without light centers increased. The reduction in the area of cerebral matter was significant. In the light center of the lymphatic node, the number of blast forms of cells, plasma cells, and destructively changed ones increased with age. The density of cells in the light centre was higher in adults than in adolescent animals. In the adults, the density of cells in the medullar zone was higher. With age, the number of reticular and destroyed cells increased in the paracortical zone, and that of medium and small lymphocytes decreased. In the group of plasma cells, the number of unripe cells increased and that of mature cells decreased with age.
The morphology of the prezoeal larval stages (obtained in laboratory) in the dorippid crab,
The increase in the numbers and expansion of the Azov-Black Sea population of pygmy cormorant have resulted in its appearance in the eastern coast of the Sea of Azov in the early 1960s. Presently, the great number of this species is recorded in the Kuban River delta. In 2002, a colony of pygmy cormorant was found in the lower reaches of the Don River (near the town of Aksai). In 2004, 15-20 pairs of the birds nested here. The reasons that have caused the expansion of pygmy cormorant are mainly related to the more favorable conditions of wintering due to the recent warming of climate
Twelve species of Laridae family were monitored during 22 years (1983-2005) in Bashkortostan. The data on changes in distribution, annual cycles, ecology, and population of these species are presented.
Three types of paratization strategies - macrobiont, ephemerobiont, and medibiont were distinguished in parasitic wasps. The macrobiont strategy is directed at synchronization of seasonal development of parasitic species and their monocyclic hosts by increasing the duration of the life period in imago (female) of the former. The main modes: (1) specific macrobiont morphological type - robust, with perceptibly sclerotized cuticle, long forewings and ovipositor; (2) imaginal diapause; (3) epiovigenic oogenesis launched by feeding of wasp female on host hemolymph, i.e. predation; (4) gregarious development of coinobiont larvae in host female body for suppression of its immune response to the latter. The ephemerobiont strategy solves the same task, but by shortening the life of imago and extension of the preimaginal stage (mainly, larval one). The main modes: (1)() the ability of rearing wasp females for immediate oviposition in hosts at their earliest developmental stages; (2)() frail morphological type of wasp female with a tiny ovipositor complex at the abdomen apex; (3) the ab (3)sence of additional feeding in adult females; (4) transitional parasitism of coinobiont larvae through several (4)stages (instars) of the host life cycle. The medibiont strategy is asynchronic, i.e. it is not directed to synchroni (5)zation of development in parasitic wasps and their hosts. It is connected with a significant risk. Neutralization (6)of the risk factor is reached by parasitic species owing to its (1) polyphagy and (2) specialization to parasitize (7)different hosts associated with a particular biotope and including search migrations; (3) moderate development (8)of cuticle sclerotization and well developed forewings and ovipositor; (4) synovigenic cyclic oogenesis; (5) a (9)relatively long life of adult female; (6) both coinobiont and idiobiont larva.
In Stavropol and six settlements of Stavropol krai (January-March 2001-2003), 1030 pellets of the long eared owl,
Mikhailov Yu. E.
Larvae of four instars are described in the little known leaf beetle
The structure of respiratory apparatus of burrowing crangonid shrimps and necto-benthic pandalid shrimps was studied. Sea water as a source of oxygen usually contains suspended organic and mineral particles and plankton. Therefore, grooming of gills and branchial chamber is important for shrimps. The structure and functioning of the respiratory apparatus is found to be similar in all the species investigated. However, despite the general similarity, in Crangonidae, the respiratory apparatus is directed to prevention against pollution, in Pandalidae, to cleaning. These facts appears to be related to the modes of life in these animals.
Gongal'sky К.В., Pokarzhevskii A.D., Savin F.A.
Submediterranean landscapes identified by geographers and botanists as a unique formation in the narrow coastal zone can be also distinguished according to soil-zoological characteristics. Population of large soil invertebrates was studied in July 2001 in pine, beech, hornbeam, and juniper forests, shibliak, and steppe open woodland of Abrau peninsula. The distance from the sea played the most important role in the formation of the soil mesofauna: the beech and hornbeam forests differed significantly from each other and from the coastal biotopes. The low abundance and presence of xerophilous groups of invertebrates were typical traits of the mesofauna in soils of the coastal biotopes. The relic red-listed embia,
The duration of embryonic and postembryonic development
Проанализирован видовой состав двукрылых насекомых, развивающихся в древесине и коре отмирающих деревьев. Установлены более тесные связи с разлагающейся древесиной у личинок длинноусых двукрылых и их преимущественная роль в ее деструкции. Среди высших круглошовных двукрылых преобладают обитатели зоны коры. Непосредственно в древесине развиваются преимущественно представители реликтовых форм, что объясняется специфическими свойствами древесины. Выделено 9 экологических групп ксило- и флеобионтов. Сделан вывод о том, что освоение древесины в качестве субстрата является лишь одним из направлений эволюционного развития двукрылых насекомых. Несмотря на связи с древесиной реликтовых групп, обитание в ней не могло быть исходной точкой последующей радиации двукрылых в целом.
Two devices for indoor processing of insect collections are described. The first device simplifies essentially comparative studies of large series of insects. The second one allows regulating the height of labels on pins and enables to put a set of labels simultaneously.