Зоологический журнал


Dialectics of development at the levels of organism and population

Shvarts S.S.

The ideas of V. I. Lenin concerning the correlation between the phenomenon and the law, the essence and the unessential, the necessity and the casualty allow a deeper comprehension of the causes and mechanisms of «self-movement» of the living matter. The latter is based on the internal contradictoriness of any adaptations and any evolutionary transformations of animals. From this viewpoint is analyzed the correlation between the following notions and phenomena: specialization — universalization, genotype — environment, genotype — phenotype, specimen -— population, population — biogeoeoenosis.. The main conclusions: most important contradictions arising at the organismic level of life integration are solved at the level of populations; events, casual at the cellular or orgartjsmic level, cause non-casual consequences at the level of population; evolution is a strictly determined process based on the transformation and integration of casual events; increase in the level of organization and perfectioning of homeostatic reactions lead to the continuous enrichment of the biosphere but decrease the effectiveness of use of energy by separate systems and their community. The cognition of the dialectics of these phenomena opens a way of their control.

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