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The salinity tolerance of the White Sea mollusk Macoma balthica L. was studied at cellular and organism levels. Both cellular (determined by the cellular activity) and organism (determined as the burrowing activity) tolerances were tightly related to the level of salinity, at which the clams were acclimatized. The distinction between responses of cells and organisms to the changes in salinity are discussed. The potential tolerance range of the population investigated is 0.8-62‰.
Pavlinov I. Ya.
The application of geometric morphometrics for analyzing the shape of the anterior part of the upper toothrow (including incisive, antemolars and 1
Six species of gall-midges develop on 16 species of Verbascum in the Palaearctic. Verbasciolini tr. n., Verbasciola gen. n., V. mamaevae sp. n., Trotteria bochkarevi sp. n., and Lestodiplosis verbasci sp. n., are described. Imago of Asphondylia verbasci (Vallot) is redescribed, and a new name for V. petioli (Mamaeva) comb. n. (Camptoneuromyia), comb. n. is given. The information about the formation, life cycles and distribution of all Verbascum species is represented.
The main types of folding in beetle hindwing are reviewed and discussed. All folding patterns are arranged into four groundplans or referred to archostematan, schizophoroid, adephagan, and polyphagan structural-functional types. The latter is subdivided into scirtoid, “diversicorn” (“clavicorn” + “serricorn”), haplogastran (or staphyliniform), “dryopiform”, melyrid, bostrichoid, and elateroid subtypes. The adephagan and polyphagan folding types are considered as independent derivatives of the archostematan one. The scirtoid and bostrichoid subtypes, being of different origin, are similar only in the appearance. The elateroid subtype combines folding patterns of Dascilloidea, Buprestidae, and Elastroidea and is the basic for Elateriformia excluding scirtoids. A scheme of morphogenetic relationships between the main folding patterns is proposed. Phylogenetic relations based on the specific wing structure between some beetle taxa are briefly discussed.
At the present time, the species of the family Cercopagidae of the genera Bythotrephes and Cercopagis (Cercopagis) are widespread in the Volga River cascade, the Baltic Sea, and lakes of North America. Like all Cladocera, Bythotrephes and C. (C.) pengoi have periods of parthenogenetic and gamogenetic reproduction with participation of males. Winter eggs are formed in gamogenetic females. The period of parthenogenesis becomes longer in the species from southern water bodies, but that of gamogenesis, in water pools located northward. Newborn parthenogenetic females have a round brood pouch without a point before the second molting. This feature distinguishes these females from other ones in the C. (C.) pengoi population. Cercopagis (Apagis) ossiani, described as an independent species, appears to be a C. (C.) pengoi female hatched from a winter egg. This female has four pairs of claws on the thickened caudal appendage without loop, large size, and the shortened firs pair of thoracic limbs, and maximal fecundity.
Bursky O.V., Kontorshchikov V.V., Batova O.N.
The special cage observations revealed differences between willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) and chiffchaff (P. collybita) in foraging stereotypes. Chiffchaff usually examines a substrate on all sides just around itself and takes all suitable objects, including the smallest and slow-moving ones. Short movements are sufficient for renewal of a visual field. The selectivity of microhabitats is poorly expressed. Willow warbler prefers to hunt in dense and illuminated outer parts of crowns, especially in willow crowns. The visual field of willow warbler is broader, and moving objects in the air and on the lower sides of leaves attract their attention. Flight is important in searching for and catching the food objects. The more energy-consuming foraging behavior of willow warbler is compensated by selection of larger food objects and productive microhabitats that enables interruption in the foraging activity. The foraging peculiarities are in accordance with morphology of species and explain the differences in their biology and distribution. Evolution of the foraging stereotype during the Pleistocene according to new habitat types appears to be the most probable cause and the first stage in distinguishing willow warbler as a new species.
Litvinova E.M., Vasilieva N. Yu.
Sources of individually distinctive odors were revealed in males of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) using a “habituation-discrimination” test. Urine, feces, the content of the oral cavity (“saliva”), secretions of midventral gland and supplementary sacculi at the opening of check pouches, ear secretions, as well as body and feed odors were used as olfactory stimuli. During the test trial, samples prepared from one individual male were presented to hamster males four times with an interval of 15 min. Then a similar stimulus from a novel individual was presented. The behavioral response of all test males was similar with respect to all the excretions studied. After the loss of interest in the same stimuli the time of investigating the odor from the novel individual increased. The data obtained attest that all studied excretions were individually distinctive for hamsters and may be used for the discrimination of Djungarian hamster’s individuals.
Zaitsev M.V., Osipova V.A.
The late Pleistocene remains of insectivorous mammals belonging to the order Insectivora from four localities of the Northern Caucasus (the caves of Matuzka, Mezmaiskaya, Monasheskaya, and Myshtulagty) were studied. Most of the samples is referred to the Chasoval’skii faunistic complex. Generally, the Insectivora fauna dealt with is somehow intermediate between the Middle Pleisocene and recent ones. For instance, Sorex minutissimus, S. cf. runtonensis, and Neomys hintoni, which inhabited the Caucasus in the Middle Pleistocene, and recent S. cf. satunini, S. raddei, Neomys teres, and Erinaceus concolor were discovered within the same deposits together with Talpa sp. However, S. doronochevi, Drepanosorex rupestris, and N. newtoni, which are khown for the Middle Pleistocene, occurred to be completely eliminated. The distinguishing feature of this period is the predominance of the Caucasian shrew S. satinini. Presently, it is the dominant species of subalpine meadows in the Caucasus. The presence of S. raddei and Erinaceus concolor among the findings indicates the existence of forest habitats over those times.
Osteology of poorly known species of the genus Dzihunia from rivers of Central Asia was studied. The absence of preethmoideum-I and pelvic axillary lobe and the presence of well-developed manubrium are characteristics, which indicate the similarity of Dzihunia to the genera Oxynoemacheilus and Indoreonectes. However, many osteological and external morphological characteristics of representatives of the genus studied allows one to conclude about its long-term isolation. Philogenetic relations of Dzihunia with other nemacheiline without preethmoideum-I are discussed.
The “Lineus ruber” complex includes two described species (Lineus ruber an L. viridis) and one not yet described species (“abberrant type”) from the coast areas of Northern Europe. L. ruber and L. viridis differ from each other in color of their bodies and specific features in their development. However, the distinction in body’s color is not always well determined. L. gurjanovae and L. ushakovi are synomized with L. viridis. The genus Poseidon Girard 1852 with the type species Poseidon colei Girard 1852 (=L. ruber) is restored for L. ruber and L. viridis.
The species Argynnis adippe begedadippe (Huang 1999) described from the Chinese part on the Tien-Shan is synonymized with A. a. tianschanica Alphéraky 1881, since this species has no its own distinguishing characteristics.