Baskevich M.I., Potapov S.G., Okulova N.M., Balakirev A.E., Krapivko T.P., Sapel’nikov S.F.
A comparative analysis of structural and metric peculiarities of spermatozoa in six species of the genus Apodemus (A. mosquensis, A ciscaucasicus, A. ponticus, A. flavicollis, A. fulvipectus, and A. agrarius) from Eastern Europe and adjacent territories of Transcaucasia was performed for the first time. In these species, as well as in most Muridae species, spermatozoa are similar. They consist of an asymmetric falciform head and a tail attached to the ventrocaudal surface of the head. There are interspecific differences in sperm morphology and its size. Neither geographic nor individual variation in these characteristics was found. The latter may be used as diagnostic characteristics for the identification of sympatric and morphologically similar species of the subgenus Sylvaemus. Spermatozoa of the closely related species A. (S.) mosquensis-A. (S.) ciscaucasicus and A. (S.) flavicollis-A. (S.) ponticus proved to be the most similar, while those in A. (S.) fulvipectus differed to some degree. Spermatozoa of A. agrarius drastically differ from those in the other species studied. Taxonomic and philogenetic aspects of the results obtained are discussed.
Klevezal’ G.A., Sokolov A.A.
The wear rate of mandibular premolars and molars was studied in wild reindeer of populations from Taimyr Peninsula (two samplings, 1992 and 1995), the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, and Wrangel Island. The crown height was measured separately for buccal and lingual wall of each tooth. The age of all reindeer was determined from cementum annual layers in I
Shveenkova Yu. B., Potapov M.B.
The new collembolan species Najtiaphorura dobrolubovae sp. n. (Onychiuridae, Tullberginae) is described from soil of a steppe area at the “Privolzhkaya Lesostep” Reserve. This species differs from all the known Tullberginae species in the greater number of serae in a m-row: meso- and metathorax with m
A preliminary characterization of the Talitrus saltator (Montagu 1808) population from the region of Kulikovo (Kaliningrad, Russia, the Baltic Sea) was carried out. During most of the growing season the T. saltator population in the Sambiya Peninsula is represented by females of 9-17 mm long, males (8-18 mm), and juveniles of 5-10 mm long. The population consists of two generations: animals of last and current breeding. Elder individuals die during the period from April to May and from July to August, when most large talitrids die, and in September-October. The life span of T. saltator is about 12-14 months. The population studied differs from the T. saltator population from the Khel spit (Poland) by some parameters and is considered as an independent one.
The data on greenish warbler were collected mainly in southern Karelia in 1974-2001. The main nesting area of this bird is Asia and Eastern Europe; in Central and Western Europe it nests rarely. The species has been known within the former Olonets province since 1974, but the author found the first nest in 1974. Since that time, this bird’s nests were recorded regularly in this area. The population density varies in different habitats: from 0.7 pairs/km
Shtanchaeva U. Ya.
The status of the genus Flexa Kuliev 1977, which was indicated as a synonym of Carabodes C.L. Koch 1836, was restored. Representatives of five species of the genus Flexa were found in the Caucasus: F. dubia (Kuliev 1968), F. scopulae (Kuliev 1968), F. bidens Dzaparidze 1990, F. horreo Dzaparidze 1990, and F. intermedia (Willmann 1951) comb. n. The new species Flexa tarbae sp. n. from Daghestan is described. A mapscheme for the distribution of representatives of the genus Flexa in the Caucasus is represented.
Kuznetsov A.A., Matrosov A.N.
Mutiyear studies of the migration activity and parasitogenic contacts of midday gerbils (Meriones meridianus) and tamarisk gerbils (M. tamariscinus) made it possible to measure the mean distances of daily travel of the animals away from their burrows accounted to about 85 m in spring and 50 m in fall. The longest distance was 200 to 250 m. Mass burrow contacts were realized at these distances resulted in the expansive flea exchange that connected all the inhabitants of both combined and one-species gerbil settlements into a single “contact network”. The dislocation of the rodents that was accompanied by visiting a great number of burrows is regarded as an ecological mechanism that maintains the unity of ectoparasite populations and provides for the possibility to disseminate the plague agent.
Anthrenius gracilis sp. n. differs from A. mongolicus Zhant. in the structure of antennae, aedeagus and scales. A. gobicus sp. n. is distinguished from A. tuvensis Zhant. by 9-segmented antennae and from A. megalops Arr. and A. parthicus Zhant. (only females are known) by very narrow antennal club of females. A complete description of A. parthicus females and some information about males of A. hissaricus Mrocz. are given.
Dreissena bugensis was found for the first time in the benthos of the Ucha Reservoir in 2002. The age of the mollusks was 2+ y, and the maximum shell length was 28 mm. The plankton Dreissena bugensis larvae appear to penetrate to the Ucha Reservoir in 2000 with water from the Pestovo Reservoir. In the Moscow River within the city of Moscow, D. bugensis was found in 2003. The age of the mollusks was 2+ y, and the maximum shell length was 24 mm.
The main structural elements (folds and fields) of folding pattern in beetle hindwings are considered. General trends in their transformation during structural evolution are discussed. The major trend is the complication of the folding system. Its new elements (folds and fields) were formed by stages mainly in centrifugal direction. The origin of field B seems to be the first stage. At the next stage (corresponding to folding types in Archostemata and Adephaga + Myxophaga), field H became fully separate, while field C was not isolated. The final stage was marked by developing the Polyphaga folding type, the characteristic feature of which was the presence of fields C, S, and D. Initially, the D field duplicated the function of the B field, then it fully took it over resulting in the partial or complete reduction of the B field.
Ivashov A.V., Kompaniitsev V.A., Simchuk A.P.
Investigation of structure of natural Tortix virivana and Aleimma loeflingiana populations revealed the complex hierarchy of intrapopulation groups of T. viridana and the lack of hierarchy in A. loeflingiana. This fact may be important for the co-existence and evolution of these two species close in evolution. The results of component analysis of morphometric characteristics in the species within the groups distinguished attests that the method used is inadequate to the task set. The component analysis allowed one to reveal the main regularities in varying the characteristics of leaf roller moth larvae.
In northeastern Asia, the taxon Cheilosia is suggested to be of the early Eocene origin. This conclusion is made on the basis of analyzing the paleontological material of the genus with reference to ecological preferences of recent species. A hypothesis about the penetration of Cheilosia into northern Europe and North America through the Turgai and Beringian “bridges” existing in the middle Eocene. Favorable conditions for the genus are suggested to develop in the Neogene, when the intense exchange of faunas between Europe and Asia took place, and the diversity of landscapes decreased. The current pattern of distribution of Cheilosia has resulted from intense migrations of faunas during periods of glaciation and interglacial warming.
The diagnosis of the new species Nematocarcinus manningi from waters surrounding Japan is given. The species differs from similar species of the same genus in weakly developed dorsal protuberance of posterior edge of the 3
Goodkov A.V., Chistyakova L.V., Seravin L.N., Frolov A.O.
Pedobionts is a peculiar group of amitochondrial amoeboid protests possessing flagella. They are free-living microaerobic and anaerobic organisms. The ideas of the nature, composition, and taxonomic status of pelobionts radically changed time and again. The modern concept of pelobionts originates in Griffin's publication (1988), although most of the species comprising this group were known long ago. Pelomyxa palustris, the type species and genus of the group, was described by R. Greef in 1887. Other pelobionts, which were referred to “mastigamoebids”, belong to three nominal genera Mastigamoeba, Mastigina, and Mastigella. They have a number of similar features of cell organization (unique in their combination) and represent a homogenous group of related organisms. Pelobionts are united into the class Peloflagellatea Seravin et Goodkov 1991 with the only order Pelobiontida (Page 1976) Griffin 1988. The results of few molecular and biological studies on phylogenetic relations between pelobionts and other protests are quite controversial. However, they attest definitely to the secondary loss of pelobionts' mitochondria in the course of their evolution. Atypical (deflected from the standard microtubular pattern) structure of axoneme and flagellar basal body in some pelobionts are also attributed to the loss of the initial locomotion function of the flagellar apparatus in the course of evolutionary transition to a different type of cell organization. The species composition of pelobionts has been poorly studied. Therefore, their taxonomic identification is unreliable. Among 200 nominal pelobiont species described in the late 19
Five species of polychaetes of the family Phyllodocidae (Phyllodoce groenlandica (Oerst.), Ph. maculata (L.), Eteone longa (Fabricius), Eulalia bilineata (Johnston), E. viridis (L.)) and some nectochaeta of the same family were studied. All the species studied are similar in morphology. Two unclear turuli represent dorsal longitudinal muscles; two distinct one, ventral longitudinal muscles. The entire circular musculature is absent. Dissepiments, being incomplete, are presented on the ventral side of the body and formed by muscle cells. Coelothelium is absent; coelomocytes were not found. Coelomic lining consists of simple myoepithelium, cells of which form differently developed appendages. Most numerous, developed and branched appendages are in large animals: Ph. groenlandica and Ph. maculata. Visceral and parietal cells of small phyllodocides have smaller appendages. Myoepithelium of nectochaeta forms no extensions. Large mesoderm cells need larger surface, through which exchange with coelomic fluid takes place. Small cells need smaller surface contact with coelomic fluid. The size of myoepithelial cells depends on the animal’s size. The necessary surface area is provided by cytoplasmic appendages. Thus, the degree of developing the cytoplasmic appendages, their number, and branching are adaptive features.