Snegin E.A., Sychev A.A., Snegina E.A.
Based on intermicrosatellite fragments of DNA (ISSR) and conserved sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S and 18S), three forms of Сhondrula tridens (Müller 1774) (var. galiciensis, albolimbata and major) were analyzed for the purpose of clarifying their taxonomic statuses. ISSR analysis demonstrates that the major populations are significantly distant from the those of albolimbata and galiciensis (Фst varying from 0.234 to 0.581). Between the albolimbata and galiciensis groups, the level of Фst differentiation ranged 0.145–0.340, which fails to lie beyond the differences between the populations within the forms. An analysis of conserved DNA sequences shows that genetic distances between these forms can be regarded as interspecies differences within the same genus. According to the COI gene, the genetic distances between the forms are Da/g = 0.295, Dm/g = 0.422, Dm/a = 0.478, while for the 16S gene, Da/g = 0.130, Dm/g = 0.358, Dm/a = 0.392. The 18S rRNA sequences in the three species compared and in the species Ena montana (Draparnaud 1801) from the same family appear to be absolutely identical. We believe that the forms galiciensis and albolimbata which both inhabit structurally the same landscapes seem to represent sibling species. The form galiciensis can be named Chondrula tridens (Müller 1774), while the form albolimbata is Chondrula albolimbata (Pfeiffer 1848). The form major is represented by isolated groups and, according to the genetic analysis data, is very distant from the previous forms, therefore also deserving the rank of a species with the name Chondrula major (Krynicki 1833). Keywords: ISSR, COI, 16S, 18S genes, land snail, phylogenetic analysis
Ivanter E.V., Makarov A.M., Kryukova S.A.
Changes in common shrew numbers were analyzed, based on long-term observations (1965–2014). Material (1573 specimens) was collected in bilberry pine forests in Karelia using standard methods. That fundamental habitat was chosen to avoid the influence of succession changes on mammal numbers. Autocorrelation and spectral (harmonic) analyses were applied. Analyses of averaged data for the May-September period, as well as for the period of maximum abundance (August) yielded similar results. Correlation analysis revealed periodicity in temporal series, based only on groove capture data (4–6 years). Harmonic analysis showed 6- to 9‑year long intervals in shrew numbers change. Recurrence was low in the conditions of Karelia, as well as over most of the distribution area. Analyses of changes in common shrew abundance in a single fundamental forest type in August revealed a more evident frequency periodicity than those using generalized data covering different habitats. Keywords: statistical analysis, periodicity, cyclicity, population dynamics, common shrew
Berman D.I., Leirikh A.N.
Cold hardiness of soil invertebrates (37 species of insects and 27 species of other higher taxa) was studied in continental areas of Northeast Asia, a region with extreme winter temperatures. Insects overwinter mostly (34 species) in supercooled state surviving within the temperature range of –12 to –35°C. 13 species of invertebrates (including insects, slugs, earthworms, centipedes, amphipods) in frozen state can tolerate temperatures within the range of –5 to –45°C. Eggs of slugs, cocoons of earthworms, larvae of some species of elaterids show cryoprotective dehydration that allows them to survive at temperatures from –20 to ‒40°C, down to the record minimum of –196°C. Most of the studied organisms can tolerate temperatures of –25…–30°C, which correspond to average minimal temperatures in upper soil horizons in most habitats of the continental regions of Northeast Asia. Keywords: soil invertebrates, mechanisms of cold hardiness, Northeast Asia
The diet of the Asiatic black bear in the south of the Russian Far East is mostly composed of plants. These animals do not prey on ungulates, but they actively climb up trees to feed on fruits, leaves and twigs. All these features affect the behavior of wild boar which show no fear of the Asiatic black bear, but rather develop a specific foraging strategy: feeding on acorns and nuts which fall down when bears feed in the trees. Keywords: commensalism, interspecific association, foraging strategy, Sus scrofa, Ursus thibetanus
Reznik S. Ya., Belyakova N.A., Ovchinnikov A.N., Ovchinnikova A.A.
Effects of the number of larvae per Petri dish (1, 5, and 10) on the pre-imaginal development of individuals of native (Irkutsk, southern Siberia) and invasive (Sochi, northern Caucasus) populations of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis were investigated in the laboratory. The experiments were conducted under short (12 h) and long (18 h) day conditions, the larvae were fed with the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae or with eggs of the grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella. An increase in the number of larvae developed in one Petri dish resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of development in individuals from both populations which fed on aphids. Survival decreased with an increase in the number of larvae developed in one Petri dish with feeding on both prey species, but only due to larvae from the invasive population of H. axyridis. The weight of emerging adults decreased with the number of larvae per dish in individuals from both study populations, but only when fed on aphids. These data suggest that the influence of density-dependent factors on the development of H. axyridis depends significantly on larval prey species. In addition, larvae from the invasive population have somewhat more aggressive interactions with competitors, this possibly having been one of the prerequisites for invasion. Keywords: population density, density-dependent factors, development, biological invasions, Harmonia axyridis
Rapoport L.P., Kulemin М.V., Melnichuk Е.А., Kobeshova Zh. B., Shokputov Т.М., Atovullaeva L.M., Sailaubekuly R.
Tick fauna of rodents was studied in the Muyunkum Desert (Chu-Tallas Interfluve), Eastern Kyzylkum and in the West of Betpakdala. Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum, Haemaphysalis erinacei turanica and Ornithodorоs tartakovskyi ticks were found dominant in all desert regions. However, the degree of dominance of individual species varied in different deserts. Most ticks parasitize Rhombomys opimus and Spermophilus fulvus. Ticks that parasitize rodents are vectors of agents of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, Q fever, tick-borne spotted fevers, borreliosis. Keywords: ixodid tick, rodent, species composition, abundance, dominance, epizootic significance
Kodukhova Yu. V., Karabanov D.P.
Morphological characteristics of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Pleshcheyevo, Yaroslavl Region, Russia are presented. Since the introduction of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to the lake, the formation of a new, “mollusc-eating” roach morphotype is noted. This morphotype is characterized by massive pharyngeal teeth, and high rates of body size and mass growth. An increase in the maximum size and lifespan of the fish in the lake is also revealed. DNA-barcoding of the COI locus of mtDNA was performed for the roach from the lake. All three dhaplotypes iscovered were found both in “mollusci-eating” and “herbivorous” roach forms. The appearance of a “mollusk-eating” form seems to be ecologically determined and results from fish feeding being switched to zebra mussel. Keywords: roach, Rutilus rutilus, Lake Pleshcheevo, morphotypes, feeding, Dreissena polymorpha, zebra mussel
The composition of the genus Parendacustes Chop. and of its two subgenera is briefly discussed. Nine new taxa of the nominotypical subgenus of this genus are described: P. berezini sp. n., P. arachne sp. n., P. pahangi borealis subsp. n., P. sylvestris sp. n., P. tkatshevae sp. n., P. tawau sp. n., P. tiomani sp. n., P. ectoparameralis sp. n. and P. magnispeculum sp. n. New data on the distribution of P. p. pahangi Gor., and considerations concerning the generic position of P. latifrons Chop. and P. lifouensis Desutter-Grandcolas are also provided. Keywords: Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Phalangopsinae, Phalangopsini, Parendacustes, Southeast Asia, new taxa
Ermilov S.G., Corpuz-Raros L.
Two new species of oribatid mites from the genus Galumnella (Oribatida, Galumnellidae) are described from the Philippines. Galumnella processa sp. n. differs from G. junichiaokii Ermilov, Corpuz-Raros et Shimano 2014 by the triangular ledge on the anterior margin of the ventral plate and the smooth bothridial setae. Ga-lumnella quezonensis sp. n. differs from G. cellularis Balogh et Mahunka 1967 by the larger body size and the presence of bothridial setae with very long and thin apices, and of longitudinal ridges in the anogenital region. Keywords: mite, Galumnella, taxonomy, morphology, new species, Philippines
Zhokhov A.E., Pugacheva M.N., Mikheev V.N.
Results are presented of a systematic study of parasites from 248 individuals of Dascyllus reticulatus (Pisces: Pomacentridae) collected in 2012–2014 in the Gulf of Nha Trang, South China Sea, Vietnam. Thirteen species of parasites were found: Copepoda 1, Monogenea 3, Cestoda 1, Trematoda 5, Nematoda 3. Of them, 4 species were adults (Ancyrocephalinae gen. sp. 1, 2, 3, Hysterolecitha nahaensis,), whereas 9 species were larval stages (Copepoda sp., Scolex polymorphus, Bivesicula sp., Stephanostomum sp., Metacercariae gen. sp. 1, Metacercariae gen. sp. 2, Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp., Spirocamallanus sp.). Keywords: Dascyllus reticulatus, fish, parasite, Gulf of Nha Trang, South China Sea, Vietnam
Results of coprological studies on the feeding habits of the otter (Lutra lutra) in the conditions of southeastern Ukraine (Dnepropetrovsk Region), which actually represents the center of the European part of its range, are presented. The diet composition of this species is the least diverse compared to that of the other Carnivora species in the region: 44 objects, including 6 of vegetable origins, 20 invertebrates and 18 vertebrates. Most of the consumed biomass is composed of invertebrates and vertebrates (8.52 and 89.95%, respectively), first of all, fish (55.24%), mammals (18.20%), reptiles (8.72%), as well as crustaceans (5.81%) and amphibians (5.58%). The pray range corresponds to that known from the European part of the otter distribution area and is represented by such species common in the region as painter’s mussel (Unio pictorum); narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus); goldfish (Carassius auratus) (20.35% of the biomass consumed), roach (Rutilus rutilus), rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), bream (Blicca bjoerkna), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and some other fish species; green frogs (Rana sp.); European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) (underyearlings and juveniles), grass snake (Natrix natrix) (6.98%); water shrew (Neomys fodiens), and water vole (Arvicola terrestris) (11.63%). In the study area, the otter is confined to waterbodies lying within forest habitats subjected to considerable xerophytization against the steppe zone’s background. Characteristically, it is in those conditions that the animal feeds on reptiles (semi-aquatic only: N. natrix and E. orbicularis) to a greater extent than on amphibians. This corresponds well to the trend observed in its European distribution range to the intensity of using the reptile resource shifting increasingly to the south. The width of the trophic niche as estimated with such indices as Shannon diversity index H = 3.82 (with expanding the diet diversity to invertebrates (H = 1.66) → vegetation (H = 2.13) → vertebrates (H = 3.47)) and eveness U = 0.70 corresponds to the foraging strategy of a specialized predator. The otter food composition indicates the capability of implementing its foraging behavior not only in water and water-related, but also in forest habitats. The forage reserve condition in the region provides a sufficiently varied and balanced diet for the predator, as well as the capacity for an adaptive realignment to an alternative use of basic resources: The shares of each of 16 out of 18 pray items among the vertebrates that take part in the consumed biomass exceed 1% (1.05–20.35%). Thus, the vulnerable conservation status of the otter in the territory of the Southeast of Ukraine is rather due to other environmental factors than to the forage reserve condition or the peculiarities of its exploitation. Keywords: carnivorous mammal, diet, trophic niche, use of food resources, vulnerable species, extrazonal forest ecosystem, mammalian ecology
Alekseev S.K., Sheftel B.I.
The known records of the Etruscan shrew (Suncus etruscus) in the regions of the Kabardino-Sunzhenskii Mountain Ridge in North Ossetia and the Terskii Mountain Ridge in Ingushetia were reviewed. The species identity of these animals was confirmed through dental system and morphometric analyses. A history of the study of this species in the Caucasus region was recovered. As a result of these studies, the fauna list of the Russian Federation is enriched with the Etruscan shrew. Keywords: Pygmy White-toothed Shrew, North Ossetia, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Sunzhenskii Mountain Ridge, Terskii Mountain Ridge, Barber’s trap
This paper presents some results of deep-sea research in the Chaetognatha with the use of a new epibenthic sledge in the southeastern part of the Peter-the-Great Bay of the Sea of Japan. Novel data on chaetognath fauna of the Sea of Japan come as a result investigating the samples collected close to the bottom. A new bathypelagic genus, Prakrohnitella gen. n. (fam. Krohnitellidae Bieri 1991) was discovered in the northwestern part of the Sea of Japan. This sea was previously considered as being devoid of a true deep-sea chaetognath fauna, with only four specimens of that rare family hitherto found in the World Ocean. Drawings and detailed descriptions of the new genus and species (P. malyutinae sp. n.) are presented. A key to all genera of Krohnitellidae is given. Keywords: Сhaetognatha, bathypelagic fauna, Sea of Japan, new genus, new species, key