The new species,
Davidyan G.E., Savitsky V. Yu.
Twelve species of butterflies were found on Paramushir Island (the northern Kuril Islands). Six species, including two Beringian ones, were described for the first time. The data on their environmental conditions and ranges are given. The fauna of butterflies on Paramushir Island is shown to represent a depleted young derivative of the Kamchatka fauna with the high percentage of actively migratory species.
Ways, dynamics, and success of egg hatching, as well as life span of miracidium and variation of egg sizes were studied in sympatric species of
Udaloi A.V., Novikov E.A.
A new locality in the disjunct area of
Malygin V.M., Rosmiarek M.
The data on habitat, sex-age structure, fertility, activity, and nutrition of 1156 individuals that belong to 31 species of 12 genera and 5 tribes were analyzed. The data on 8 species of Cricetinae are represented for the first time. Brief landscape-geographical descriptions of three habitats in Peruan Amazonia and six ones in southern Bolivia are given. Three ecological groups of the species studied were distinguished: (1) forest-dwelling species
A juvenile of the new species,
Phylogenetic models were constructed for eight
The seasonal dynamics (1998-2001) of
The rare starfishes
Twelve extrazonal groups were revealed in the fauna of terrestrial arthropods of the southern Srednerusskii Upland based on the contemporary distribution of their species. The reconstruction of the histrorical dynamics of zonal landscape types allowed one to suggest the existence of about 14 relic complexes: the forest group composed of nemorose (Early Pleistocene, Dnieper Ice Age, and Briansk interval) and boreal relics (Odintsovo (Ro-slavl), Waldai Ice Age, and Subboreal); the forest-steppe group, including subtropical (Likhvin interglacial) and forest-steppe relics (Mikulino Interglacial, and Atlantic); the steppe group with mountain-steppe (Dnieper Ice Age and Middle Waldai) and xerothermic (Pliocene, Early Holocene, and Late Holocene) relics. Subatlantic steppe isolates, anthropogenic isolates, and adventive pseudorelics form a separate group. The share of relic species in the regional fauna is about 12%. A probable proportion between extrazonal groups and relic complexes is shown. The origin of large-capacity groups (boreal, southern steppe, and eastern steppe ones) is supposed to be related with the Dnieper Ice Age and Holocene xerothermic epochs.
Khaustov A.A., Makarova O.L.
Two new species,
Tembotova F.A., Puzachenko Yu. G., Kononenko E.P.
Based on the discriminant analysis, two species of hedgehogs of the genus
The ontogenetic development of shell was studied in three turtle species: Testudo graeca (Testudinidae), Emys orbicularis (Emydidae), Trionyx sinensis (Trionychidae). Individual bony plates are found to form only from one source. This fact is contradictory to the hypothesis of a complex origin of shell plates due to the fusion of basal skeletal elements and osteoderms. More probably, the shell has been formed resulted from a reduction of primary trunk dorsal and ventral osteoderms. This process was accompanied with expansion of basal bones (ribs, neural arches, bones of a shoulder girdle, and gastrals) in dermis. Hence, carapace and plastron appeared. Osteodermal peripheral plates connected them to the unique armored structure of turtle shells, Paedomorphosis as an instrument of evolutionary development is not characteristic of turtles. The morphogenetic data confirm phylogenetic hypotheses about the saltation origin of turtles and their close relation with Pareiasauria.