Зоологический журнал


Availability of resources, social demography and physiological stress in population of great gerbil

Rogovin K.A., Moshkin M.P., Randall J.A., Kolosova I.E., Chikin Yu. A.

In southern Kyzylkum desert, Uzbekistan we studied the abundance of resources, composition of family groups, survival and dispersal rate from colonies (=isolated burrow systems) of the great gerbil during two years of high and low population densities. The influence of available resources at colonies and the composition and size of social groups on fecal corticosterone and testosterone levels in breeding males was examined. The relationship of corticosterone concentrations in breeding males to composition of the social group and the allocation and abundance of resources showed that both social and environmental factors contributed to the amount of physiological stress. The relative role of environmental and social factors depends on conditions of the year and on population density. In the year of high population density (1999), the level of stress hormone (corticosterone) appeared to be more affected by availability of resources than by social condition, whereas in the year of population decline (2000), social factors played a predominant role. Up to now, it is unclear why the level of fecal corticosterone in breeding males in the spring was negatively correlated with the productivity of feeding resources that became available in summer and fall. We hypothesized that limited availability of those resources in the spring that are carried into the summer may play the role of a trigger, activating stress dependent regulation of reproduction. Survival of adult males was related to resource availability and corticosterone concentrations. We found survival of both sexes of gerbils was significantly influenced by productivity of succulent plants, the main feeding resource available in the drought summer period and not influenced by the rich spring vegetation. Availability of resources did not determine dispersal rate of gerbils from the family groups.

Ecological significance of biological signal field in mammals

Nikol'skii A.A.

A concept about ecological significance of biological signal field in mammals proposed by N.P. Naumov (1971) is discussed. The term "biological signal field" means the totality of optical, acoustic, and other physical and chemical phenomena associated with living organisms of the same habitat. The are combined in time and in space in a special way and have informative (signal) and biological importance. The characteristic features of the vital activity, transmitting from generation to generation, are of special significance. They are considered as long-living signals - a mechanism relating different generations. Biological signal field is a specific and powerful ecological factor performing several functions: (1) organizes spatial activity of animals; (2) transmits information about the spatial structure of populations and their use of the territory; (3) organizes and supports the stability of ecological systems.

Estimation of stress level in the bank vole

Zav'yalov E.L., Gerlinskaya L.A., Evsikov V.I.

A technique for the noninvasive assessment of monitoring the adrenocortical hormone was validated for bank voles

Interrelationships between two bunting species (Yellowhammer

Panov E.N., Rubtsov A.S., Monzikov D.G.

The temporal and spatial dynamics of the Yellowhammer and Pine Bunting hybridization were monitored based on the museum collections and the results of the authors' field studies in Siberia. A scenario is suggested, according to which an initial contact between the species took place in the southeastern part of Western Siberia and adjacent northwestern foothills of the Altai Mountains. By now, the hybridization has resulted in the intensive introgression, so that in some places process of the species fusion is in progress. From these areas, over the 20

Microevolutionary consequences of hierarchical structure of vertebrate populations

Severtsov A.S.

The hierarchical structure (HS) is shown to be a common feature for all vertebrates. The HS characteristics of the population are related to the species taxonomic position, species ecology, and specific local conditions in particular parts of the species area. The primary consequence of the population HS is an increase of its stability under deteriorating environmental conditions. The HS of the population also affects the transformation of genetic variability under unfluence of the natural selection. Consolidated adaptive gene complexes form at the lower levels of the population HS due to small number of individuals. Spreading to the upper levels of HS, these complexes undergo the multistep transformation controlled by the natural selection. The next consequence of the HS existence is the partial isolation of gene complexed of different HS levels providing the possibility of divergence at any hierarchical level.

Nikolai Pavlovich Naumov: life, scientific work, and fate (to the 100

Simkin G.N., Lobachev V.S.

"Population" as a cell of species. Small mammals

Shchipanov N.A.

"Population" is regarded, as a self-dependent unit of species inhabited a certain area. The integrity of population results from the movement of nonresidents within the "population" area. This provides for the sustainability of the whole "population" under destruction of some subpopulation units. The share of nonresidents in the "population" and the number of different demographic groups in its nonresident portion are determined by specific functioning. Four various modes of functioning are characteristic of small mammals. They result in different shares of nonresidents, different composition of nonresident population, and different terms of repopulating of depopulated sites. Biological signal field, according to N.P. Naumov, might structure movements of nonresidents. The reestablishment of destroyed local populations goes due to the sufficient number of nonresidents, currently moving within the "population" area. Asynchronous dynamic characteristics may be revealed in neighboring "populations". The processes, proceeding within a "population", are unimportant for the neighboring ones. The independent subsistence of population may contribute to different behavioral traits - traditions. The number of animals leaving the "population" area, may be sufficient to support the genetic integrity with neighboring populations and insufficient for integral functioning of them. So, "population" may be treated as an ecological cell of species, but it is not equivalent of genetic population.

Rhythm structure of Arctic fox

Kruchenkova E.P., Gol'tsman M.E., Frommolt K.-Kh.

Wild insular Arctic foxes

Sympatry zone of Alpine

Formozov N.A., Yakhontov E.L.

The diagnostic characteristics, distribution, and habiats of two sympatric species on the Putorana Plateau Alpine and Northern pikas - are discussed. The Latin name

Taxonomy and history of the brown bear

Chernyavskii F.B., Krechmar V.A.

Standard statistics and discriminant and cluster analyses were used to study the variability of craniometric characteristics in Beringian

The Arctic fox

Gol'tsman M.E., Kruchenkova E.P., Sergeev S.N., Volodin I.A.

The population of Arctic foxes on Mednyi Island (Commander Islands) has been isolated since the Pleistocene on a small island in the ice-free area of the North Pacific. Therefore, this population is protected both against predators and imigrating arctic foxes. The data on the structure of groups, dispersal, and survival of the island arctic fox are presented. About 35% of the families are combined into large groups, including 3-6 adult animals: a male, 1-3 lactating females, and a helper (ussually a yearling female from the same family). However, the foxes of Mednyi Island occupy small home ranges. The mobility of the Arctic fox is restricted both by the area of this island (187 km

This content is a part of the Agriculture and Forestry collection from eLIBRARY.
If you are interested to know more about access and subscription options, you are welcome to leave your request below or contact us by eresources@mippbooks.com