The age structure of the trematode Sphaerostomum globiporum hemipopulation in the ide Leuciscus idus is characterized by the combination of six groups distinguished by the Malakhova’s method (1963). Young trematodes of a new generation first appear in the fish in May and mature maritas with eggs, in February. The fish become free of parasites in June of the same year. In the Rybinsk reservoir, the period of trematode generation in the ide lasts 14 months. During May and June, parasites of two generations are found in the fish. The prepuberal period in trematodes is from May to January (9 months), the reproductive period, from February to June (15 months), the postreproductive period is absent. The data obtained are compared with the results on the age structure of S. globiporum in the roach Rutilus rutilus from Karelia.
The new species Cryptophialus gantsevichi is characterized by a long opercular neck and opercular bar with 4 projections. This species is similar to C. variabilis, C. cornophorus, C. longicoolatus, and C. lanceolatus by the shape of the opercular neck and structure of opercular bars. C. longicollatus and C. variabilis have a smaller number of the opecular bar projections (2 and 3, respectively). Other two species bear 4 projections on each opercular bar, the posterior projection being long and comparable with the others. The representatives of Cryptophialidae are characterized by elongated opercular area of the mantle sac; crown-like opercular bars; stick-like lateral bars; the absence of the orificial knob, tongue-like labrum without multifid scales; rudimentary mouth cirri; whip-like dorsal processes of the thorax; peculiar gastric mill (gizzard); and the absence of denticle-like projections on the cuticle of dwarf males often with mantle teeth. These features distinguish Cryptophialidae from other Actothoracica (Lithoglyptidae, Trypetesidae). In addition, cryptophialid cyprics larvae with rudimentary thorax and thoracopods have a unique morphology. A problem of the unity of the order Pygophora is set up.
Kirichenko N.I., Baranchikov Yu. N.
The optimal density of larvae in Siberian moth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus) kept in chambers varied in ontogenesis: the larvae living in grups predominated in the I
Dobrolyubova T.V., Shveenkova Yu. B.
When steppe phytocenoses are substituted for forest ones, the collembolan fauna remains similar, but the structure of groups is different. A transitional zone (steppe shrubs) where collembolan populations are drastically alternated is distinguished. The collembolan community of the transitional zone differs from other communities of this ecotone by dynamic changes (the dominant composition and spectra of life forms vary from year to year) and more even species composition and ecological structure. The typical for this zone species were not revealed. In this ecotone, the marginal effect is expressed not in an increase of the species richness, but in changes of the structure of collembolan communities.
Dlusskii G.M., Putyatina T.S.
The dynamics of ant population was studied in pine forests in the course of their regeneration after felling up to the formation of mature 75-year-old forests in the territory of the National Park “Ugra” (Kaluga region). Nineteen ant species were recorded. In the first year after felling, the number of ant nests and their species diversity decreased, but in the second year the number of nests was higher than that in old stands. Later on, the ant number, species diversity, and complexity of multispecies associations increased due to the invasion of thermophilous species with maximal values of these parameters in 6-25-year-old stands. The values of these characteristics were gradually reduced to minimum in the oldest forests. During the whole process of forest regeneration, the species composition of ant communities changed, and no multispecies associations differing from each other could be distinguished. The species Lasius platythorax participated in all ant associations, other species disappeared in the course of succession, and their place was occupied by representatives of the same genus dwelling under the same ecological conditions (Myrmica ruginodis, M. rubra, Formica fusca, and F. cunicularis). Some species (for instance, Tetramorium caespitum) appeared at the definite succession stage and changed depending on fluctuations in environmental factors. Obviously, all these species should be considered as members of the same coadaptive complex, the structure of which changes with time.
Krivosheina M.G., Bagachanova A.K.
The fauna of shore-flies of alas meadows in central Yakutia (Sakha) was studied for the first time. Twenty-eight species of fifteen genera were recorded. The Ephydridae shore-flies were the second by the number (18% of Diptera) after Chloropidae predominating in the Diptera communities. All the shore-fly species preferred sites witn excessive moisture. Five species were first found in Eastern Siberia. The species Lamproscattella aklavik earlier found only in northwestern Canada was registered in Palaearctic for the first time.
Averensky A.I., Sedalishchev V.T.
Siberian wood frogs feed predominantly on Coleoptera insects (66-72% of the insects consumed). Species of 21 insect families were identified. Hygrophilous and hygro-mesophilous insects (ground beetles, rove beetles, carrion beetles, leaf beetles, and weevils) represent the main food of wood frogs. The intensity of nutrition is maximal at a temperature of 10-15°C. The mean biomass of daily ration (1.2-2.15 g) is in adult frogs in July.
Arzanov Yu. G.
The new species Otiorhynchus henrici sp. n. was described from the subalpine zone of the Northern Caucasus (the Dzhentu Mountain, interfluve of the Bolshaya and Malaya Laba). The new species differs from the closely related O. buccatus Davidian et Yunakov 2002 in the narrower head, shape of the tibia, tarsus, aedeagus, sparse spots of lanceolate scales on elytra, and semierect discal setae on pronotum.
The pygopod Lialis possesses the most developed cranial kinesis as compared to that in the other lizards studied. The morphological base for intensifying the cranial kinesis in Lialis was changes in the position of palatal arches and basipterygoid processes that caused alterations in palate movements. The latter allowed to increase essentially the amplitude of the cranial mechanism motions. Lialis preserved the amphikinetic skull and jaw muscle construction that is inherent for all Gekkota lizards. On the contrary, the intensification of cranial kinesis in snakes proceeded due to the profound rearrangement of skull (substitution of amphikinesis for prokinesis) and jaw musculature. Frobably, these distinctions resulted from the different initial construction of the jaw apparatus in ancestors of pygopods and snakes. In the process of evolution of snakes, the consolidation of the braincase might precede the intensification of the intracranial mobility. The ways of intensifying organ functions are discussed.
Morphological characteristics of the species Temnostoma vespiforme, as well as of species and subspecies previously considered as its synonyms (Peck 1988) were studied. The validity of T. sibiricum and T. sericomyiaeforme is proved. Two new T. vespiforme subspecies, T. v. altaicum ssp. n. and T. v. tuwensis ssp. n., are described. A key to identifying males and females of the Palaearctic species studied is provided. The morphological analysis performed attests to a high variation of many characteristics and their parallel changeability within the species groups considered.
Two new species are described and a key for the identification of seven species of the genus Ditrigoniophthalmus Kapl. is provided. New data on the distribution of species of the genus Allopsontus Silv. over the Altai territory are presented.
Agamaliev F.G., Suleimanova I.A.
The studies of the infusorian fauna of microbenthos from the northern Absheron Bay and neighboring islands (Pirallakhi, Chilov, and Neftyanye Kamni) resulted in finding of 41 species described for the Caspian Sea for the first time. The total list of the Caspian ciliofauna contains 480 species. The list of all species, their biotopic distribution, and description of three new species are given.
Tishechkin D. Yu.
A black-yellow-colored form of Macropsis leporina was found in a population of southwestern Khabarovsk Region. The conspecificity of green and black-yellow forms was supproted by the analysis of acoustic signals. Investigations of calling signals and the second abdominal apodems in the Far Eastern poplar-dwelling Macropsis species males showed that these specimens belonged to M. suspecta. Thus, the range of this species includes not only Eastern Kazakhstan and Siberia, but also the Russian Far East. However, sets and percentages of different color forms in Siberian and Far Eastern populations are different. M. hinganensis Tishechkin sp. n. from Khabarovsk Region is described. The new species belongs to the group of willow-dwelling green forms but differs from other species in the shape of the second tergal apodems, narrow aedeagus stem, well-developed dark pattern and temporal structure of male calling signals.
Knyazev S.P., Nikitin S.V.
The results on phylogeny and taxonomy of wild boar geographic forms and domestic pig breeds are presented. The data on the distant hybridization between wild boars and landrace pigs and typing of pig populations are compared using antigens of blood groups and serum markers. A new hypothesis of microevolution for Sus scrofa is proposed.