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Toskina I.N., Nikitsky N.B.
The new species Episernus tatarinovae Toskina et Nikitsky of the genus Episernus is described from northeastern European Russia. The new species is well distinguished from the other species of this genus by the following characteristics: all the corners of pronotum are completely rounded; the sides of pronotum are gently rounded on the significant part of its length, they often are almost parallel and clearly flattened, at least in the posterior part.
Meleshko Yu. E., Korotyaev V.A.
The new species Polydrusus (Scythodrusus) turcicus is described from Turkey (the Sultan Dagh Mt., Konya province). The species belongs to the subgenus Scythodrusus Korotyaev et Meleshko 1997. Most of species of this subgenus are distributed in Asia Minor and adjacent territories of the Caucasus and Iran. Polydrusus turcicus sp. n. differs from the other species of this subgenus in the absence of erect hairs on the elytra, reduced femoral dent, shorter antenna! funicle, and the presence of a depression near the anal ventrite.
The new species Volucella bella sp. n. close to V. zonaria (Poda) is described. The new species males differ from V. zonaria males in light color of femora and construction of genitalia (by strongly broadened apical part of surstylus, shape of hypandrium, etc.). Volucella bella males and females are distinguished Volucella bella in the presence of yellow hairs on the ventral part of hind metatarsus (in V. zonaria, these hairs are black). A key to identifying and illustrations for abdomen and male genitalia is given for Palaearctic species close to V. zonaria. Illustrations of head, antenna, abdomen, and genitalia in male of the new species are presented.
The distribution of collembolan species was analyzed on a transect from the northern taiga up to the polar deserts in Central Siberia. Groups of species similar in the latitudinal distribution were distinguished in Taimyr tundras. The share of natural Arctic species mainly related to the Subarctic treeless landscapes is rather high (more than 45% of the regional species list). This is unusual for such a primitive group. The pattern of the latitudinal distribution of CoUembola on Taimyr differs little from that common for other taxa of terrestrial animals. All specific features of the zonal distribution of species described in the literature may be illustrated through the example of CoUembola.
Okulova N.M., Kataev G.D.
A comparative analysis of the data on the 25-year dynamics of redbacked vole numbers obtained in three points of its range was conducted. These points are as follows: (1) the Lapland Reserve, Kola Peninsula (northern part of the range); (2) Siberian station - Western Siberia, foothills of the Salair and Kuznetskii Alatau; (3) the Far Eastern station - the southern Russian Far East, southwestern foothills of the Sikhote Alin. The fluctuations in the number of voles are shown to be not synchronous in different parts of the area. The main factors responsible for the dynamics of the number are different in the points studied. At the Lapland Reserve, the number of voles is maximal and controlled by few functional factors (affecting in the year of registration or in the previous year), whereas a number of "retro" factors (affecting in preceding years) are of greater importance. At the Siberian station, the number of voles is related to the greatest number of functional factors. At the Far Eastern station, the pattern of the dynamics is intermediate. At the Lapland Reserve, short-term (high-frequent) cycles predominate in the temporal dynamics of the animal populations. In other points, cycles with medium periods (low frequent) occupy a significant part of the curve describing the dynamics of the voles' number.
Yanovskii I. Yu.
The ways of marking various objects objects by banded mongooses are described in details. A series of experiments showed age and sexual differences in the marking behavior, as well as in the actions for finding of an unknown objects, meetings with an intruder or investigating new areas. The collections of the St. Petersburg Zoo were the basis for the work fulfilled.
Five new genera, two new subgenera, and five new species of Phalangopsinae from New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Australia, and Lord Howe Island are described. Thise taxa differ from other representatives of this subfamily mainly in various characteristics of male genitalia. These differences are described in detail and illustrated. Some poorly studied taxa are redescribed on the basis of the type materials. The new synonymy, Luzaropsis confusa Chop., syn. n. = L.ferruginea (Walk.), is established. The taxonomic position of some other species is clarified.
Fifteen new species of the genus Exochus (E. pilosus, E. villosus, E.fidus, E. grandis, E. convexus, E. kuslitzkyi, E. mirus, E. lenis, E. abdominalis, E. antis, E. gratus, E. dilatatus, E. flexus, and E. certus) from Kamchatka, Sakhalin Island, and Kuril Islands are described. The first three species have wedge-shaped epipleuron of the third tergite, while the rest with semicircular one. A differential diagnosis is given for each species. It includes differences of each species from a related one or from the species, which may be placed in one row in the key to identifying the species.
Markova E.A., Borodin A.V., Gileva E.A.
Variation of shape and size in 458 molars (Mx) of the chromosomal sibling species Microtus arvalis and M. rossiaemeridionalis was studied from morphotypic and morphometric standpoints. Dental parameters were measured on digital images. All the M1 morphotypes previously described in M. arvalis sensu lato were found in both species. The frequency of more complicated morphotypes is higher in M. rossiaemeridionalis (34%) than in M. arvalis sensu stricto (9.2%). Sixteen dental characteristics were used to describe size and shape of M1. Principal components and cluster analyses revealed the interspecific differences in dental parameters exceeding the inter-population differences in the same species. The stepwise discriminant analysis of the dental characteristics may be used to distinguish M. arvalis (obscurus) and M. rossiaemeridionalis with a precision of 75-87%.
The results of aerial observations of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas Pall.) in the western Chukchi and eastern East Siberian Seas for the period from April to November were generalized based on Russian literature and unpublished data. The data of observations in the littoral zones of Wrangel Island and Chukotka carried out in 1985 to 2001 are submitted. The author's data, those of native hunters, as well as the published results showed the use of different parts of the seas by beluga, its migrations in the eastern Arctic, and the degree of separating the populations of belugas of the Chukchi and East Siberian Seas. The data obtained attest that the fish does not winter regularly in these seas, and there are no reasons for separation of local Chukchi and Bering populations. A gap in the species range is suggested to take place in the western part of the East Siberian Sea.
The long-term studies found that from 20 to 60% of the individuals in the L. stagnalis population investigated were infected with parthenitae of trematode families as follows: Echinostomatidae, Notocoltylidae, Diplostomatidae, Strigeidae, Plagiorchifae, and Schistostomatidae (from year to year). From 50 to 100% of the infected snails in different-sized classes were castrates. Trematode parasitism decreases to a great extent the fecundity of host snail and reduces the reproductive potential of L. stagnalis populations by 14.8%. The reproductive ac- tivity of the infected young was higher in the years with a low infection level. The results obtained indicate a trend of increasing of infected snails that lay egg mass. The fecundity of the two-year-old infected snails increased in the years with a high infection level. These population mechanisms are suggested to compensate a loss in the reproductive potential of L. stagnalis due to parasitism of trematodes
The ultrastructure of testes, vas defferens, external seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, cirrus, cirrus sac, ovary, oviduct, vitelline follicles, vitelline ducts, vagina, seminal receptacle, ootype and uterus of mature Archigetes sieboldi was studied. A. sieboldi was taken from the body cavity of the oligochaetes Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. Morphological peculiarities in progenetic A. sieboldi and Caryophyllaeus laticeps obtained from the intestine of Abramis brama fish are discussed.
The variation of morphological parameters in isolated Microtus fortis populations from islands of the Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan) was studied. The samplings of the island populations differ in the body size and have their own specific features. The influence of historical, geographical, and ecological factors on the isolated Microtus fortis populations is discussed.
The new species Tripyla italica from the Presciano stream (Abruzzo, Italy) is described. The new species is similar to T. subterranea TsaloUkhin 1976, T. dubowslii Tsalolikhin 1976, and T. longicaudata Nesterov 1979, but differs from them in the filiform tail and very strong muscles of the oesophagus. T. italica differs from the first species in the longer cephalic setae (10 |jm vs 5 |jm), from the second species, in the shorter oesophagus (386 |jm vs 470 |jm), and from the third species, in the shape of the dorsal tooth (Г. longicaudata has a hookshaped tooth). There are some comments to the description of the new species: (1) the presence of three species in all the Tripyla species is doubtful; (2) the oesophagus length in Tripyla species is highly stable; (3) the genus Tripyla is divided into two groups - "longtails" (c < 5) and "shortfalls" (c > 5.9); (4 and 5) the author proposes to distinguish T. glomerans and T. infia in shape of tail and structure of gubernaculum: T. glomerans has an acute tip of tail and gubernaculum with hook, but T. infia has a rounded tip of tail and gubernaculum without hook. T. glomerans and T. infia seem to be identical species.