The article considers the problem of bureaucratisation of the state and the most important social and economic consequences of this phenomenon. The essence of bureaucracy has been revealed, characteristic features of its functioning in Russia have been analyzed; the material base of bureaucracy and its dominating status in the society have been substantiated. The conclusion has been made that the process of changing the role of the budget to serve the interests of bureaucracy is being accomplished.
The article considers the international experience of venture entrepreneurship and its Russian specifics. It shows that venture financing is a promising way of scientific and technical and investment potential development of the country. The importance of business-incubators forming as the technology of venture financing support is shown. The experience of business-incubators development in the Ryazan region is described, the concept of science park creation based on a business-incubator in Ryazan is presented.
СЕРГИЕНКО Я., ФРЕНКЕЛЬ А.
Using the agent relations framework the authors discuss main principles of venture investments in a market economy. The positive impact of venture capital on innovations' quality improvement and their acceleration as well as its role in the process of new technological and informational chains' creation are demonstrated. Limited dependence of venture investments on the dominating national financial system's model is stated. The pivotal role of the state policy in the venture market's formation is shown.
During the last six years, exceptionally favourable external conditions for an upsurge of the domestic economy have been developed. However, they failed to result in an economic boom, which has been estimated by the authors as quite possible. One of the reasons for this - deterioration of the investment climate in the country that caused a decline of business activities and money demand decrease thus leading to reduction of potential GDP growth rate. The accumulated modernisation problems cannot be resolved without increasing the economic dynamics. But this requires an economic policy able to facilitate predictability of Russian business operational environment, to protect it legally, to secure a system of partnership relations with the government and to respect the interests of the main participants in the state level decision-making process concerning business undertakings and investment climate.
The article considers in detail those aspects of J. M. Keynes' theory, which conform to A. Marshall's approach. The author regards Marshall's and Keynes' tradition as distinct from modern neoclassical economics; advantages and disadvantages of both currents of economic thought are analyzed.
The paper argues for using non-oil-and-gas GDP as an indicator of economic dynamics in Russia. It also may be used for evaluating absorbtive capacity of the economy. The excess inflow of petro- and gas dollars has resulted in the investment boom accompanied by declining fixed capital effectiveness and escalating investment goods prices. The paper also addresses the perspectives of the Russian economy development prior and after 2008. Among other findings, the author has come to the conclusion that strengthening the Russian currency is fighting both inflation and economic growth. Such anti-inflation policy may be applied before 2008, while it is no longer needed afterwards under careful budget spending policy mainly due to a better balance between the monetary demand and actual supply of goods and services.
The paper considers basic perspectives of post-Keynesian macroeconomics. The author describes post-Keynesian views on theories of durables choice, endogenous money, financial fragility, hysteresis, conflict inflation and endogenous growth. The paper shows distinctions of post-Keynesian approach from both neoclassical tradition and other branches of Keynesianism. The author examines links between post-Keynesian macroeconomics and macroeconomics of Keynes. The paper also considers post-Keynesian views on economic policy and analyzes the relevance of post-Keynesian approach for the post-Soviet Russian economy.
Theoretical prerequisites, basic stages and mechanisms of the system market democratic transformation of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe are considered in the article. Special attention is paid to the methods of realization and strategic features of privatization of former state enterprises as well as to succeeding economic growth, rise in economic efficiency, increase of competitiveness and improving of living standards.
The author considers major problems of macroeconomic theory of the second half of the XX century, showing an intellectual continuity in the development of science from the works of J. M. Keynes to the current state of theory. The article also analyzes the main achievements of modern macroeconomics.