СААКЯН Р., ТРУНИН И.
Main directions of tax legislation development are considered in the article from the point of view of relevancy of zero tax rate implementation and tax refund. Special emphasis is placed on the problem of tax refund delay that undermines the competitiveness of the export sector of economy. Comparative analysis of VAT refund mechanisms in different countries and Russia with respect to effectiveness of tax administration has allowed to formulate some hypotheses concerning relevant parameters of refund and test them with the help of various methods and models.
ГАВРИЛОВ Н., БЕЛЯКОВ И.
The article considers the features of the Russian economy that determine the role of export as a source of economic growth, which shows the necessity of national industial export development. International comparisons of institutional models of state export support are made taking into account the place of Russia in international trade. Some quantitative estimates of probable effect of such support on economic growth in Russia are proposed.
The article provides theoretical analysis and evaluation of the timber auctions reforms in Russia. The author shows that the mechanism of the «combined auctions», which functioned until recently, is more appropriate from the theoretical point of view (and from the point of view of the Russian practice) as compared to the officially approved format of the English auction.
The article considers internationally accepted mechanisms directed at promotion of export of national producers. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the systems of tax credit for exporters on VAT and VAT refund. Approaches for their perfection are formulated. The urgency of fighting corruption in the VAT refund sphere is noted and measures of its limitation are suggested.
ЕВСТИГНЕЕВА Л., ЕВСТИГНЕЕВ Р.
The authors present some comments on the article «Groups and Their Interests» by A. Rubinstein (Voprosy Economiki. 2006. No 11). The article is highly estimated by the authors. Meanwhile, they believe the problem put forward cannot be solved without a new approach to macroeconomics as a multi-leveled system with the leading role of financial capital. In order to discuss macroeconomic issues in the context of the complex systems theory the authors develop a synergetic paradigm.
МАЕВСКИЙ В., ЧЕРНАВСКИЙ Д.
This paper argues that the real consumer possesses two in principle different abilities. He is able not only to rate the concrete kinds of goods according to their importance, but to present them as some hierarchical composition consisting of micro- and macroforms of these goods. Up to the present the fundamental economic theory has paid exclusive attention only to the first consumer ability and has ignored the second one. It is shown that the inclusion of the second consumer ability in the analysis can help solving some serious problems of the consumer choice theory.
Доклад ГУ-ВШЭ - результат партнерского проекта с Всемирным банком, осуществленного по заказу и при финансовой поддержке Министерства экономического развития и торговли Российской Федерации. Публикуется с некоторыми сокращениями. Доклад подготовлен В. Голиковой, К. Гончар, Б. Кузнецовым и А. Яковлевым. Научный руководитель проекта - Е. Ясин. В докладе также использовались результаты исследований В. Гимпельсона, Л. Григорьева, Р. Капелюшникова, А. Косыгиной, В. Миронова и К. Юдаевой. Полезные замечания и комментарии были получены от А. Белоусова, В. Дребенцова, И. Денисовой, В. Елисеевой, Н. Ивановой, А. Клепача, Е. Кузнецова и В. Полтеровича. Авторы также благодарны К. Георгиевой, И. Голдбергу, А. Гросс, Р. Десаи, Дж. Литваку, Е. Савченко, Х. Тану, А. Уоткинсу и М. Шафферу за сотрудничество при реализации настоящего проекта.The report views competitiveness of manufacturing industry as its capacity to produce goods and services with high productivity and sufficient profitability. The authors use the empirical survey of large and medium enterprises to search for the internal and external factors, which are expected to affect the position and growth perspectives of Russian enterprises. They have analyzed the way the enterprises invest and innovate, the quality of management, financial and personnel policy, as well as their learning capabilities. About 20 components of the investment climate have been studied as external factors effecting the competitive stand of companies. The situation at the factor markets and location characteristics have also been attributed to the external foundations of productivity and growth. The study has estimated the available industrial policy instruments and developed recommendations concerning efficient ways to stimulate competitiveness at the microlevel.
The paper presents a survey of the main fields of theoretical and empirical research in economics and social sciences. It offers two classifications of economic research based on methodology and segments of scientific community. Advantages and disadvantages of different methodological approaches and standards of communication are considered. The article also discusses the main directions of evolution of mainstream economics, as well as empirical and experimental turn in the modern economic science.
The article examines in detail the argument of M. Friedman as expressed in his famous article «Methodology of Positive Economics». In considering the problem of interconnection of theoretical hypotheses with experimental evidence the author illustrates his thesis using the history of the Galilean law of free fall and its role in the development of theoretical physics. He also draws upon methodological ideas of the founder of experimental economics and Nobel prize winner V. Smith.